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Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is defined as neurological syndromes of subacute installation of compromise of consciousness, alteration of working memory and psychiatric disorders associated with abnormal movements and epileptic seizures and that are produced by the action of anti-neuronal antibodies. They bind to neurotransmitter receptors or membrane proteins. Antibody to NMDAR is the origin of the majority of cases of AD in children and young adults, followed by anti-LGI1 antibody for presentation in adults. The AE has increased in the last decade, with a large number of new agents described that produce mostly neurological syndromes that involve the central nervous system, with predominance of psychiatric signaling, except in children and the predominant abnormal movements, epileptic seizures and compromise of conscience. They are frequently associated with tumors in adults but in children this association is more infrecuent. All AEs respond to immunomodulatory therapy although in different measures depending on the type of antibody involved. In general, the evolution to improvement is slow and can be completed in months or even in one year or more. In this review, the main EA clinical pictures related to specific antibodies are highlighted, also mentioning recently discovered immunophenotypes.
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Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-receptor encephalitis is the most common antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalopathy. A HIV-infected African boy presented with subacute psychosis as manifestation of anti-N-...
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe autoimmune condition, which typically affects young females. The long-term clinical consequences and brain morphology changes after ...
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE) is common among autoimmune encephalitides (AE) and can present with protean features and nonspecific laboratory and neuroimaging results. ...
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antibody encephalitis is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by the presence of anti-NMDA antibody in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, with a characteristic ...
Immune- mediated encephalitis is the most common cause of encephalitis after infection in children and adults. Although this disease process was identified nearly 20 years ago, the variety of clinical...
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is the most common curable non-infectious autoimmune encephalitis，but because of the lack of recognition in the clinic, usually been misdiagnosed as other...
In recent years, more and more previously thought to be unknown encephalitis was found to be a specific antigen associated encephalitis，but because of the lack of recognition in the clin...
Autoimmune encephalitis involve autoantibodies targeting central nervous system, and particularly the synapse or its structure like for LGI1 protein. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis is revealed by ...
This pilot study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of the efficacy of ocrelizumab in autoimmune encephalitis. Subjects with new diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis w...
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) are characterized by subacute onset of memory deficits, altered mental status or psychiatric symptoms, frequently associated with seizures, inflammatory cerebr...
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
Autoimmune disorders are conditions that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune disorders. Normally the immune system's white blood cells help protect ...
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...