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Preterm birth is one of the main country health indicators. It is associated with high mortality and significant morbidity in preterm newborns with cerebral palsy and potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities like cognitive and learning problems. The main lesions could be: a) white matter injuries, generally associated with cortical and other regions of grey matter neuronal-axonal disturbances; b) intracranial hemorrhage that includes germinal matrix, intraventricular and parenchymal, c) cerebellum injuries. The white matter lesions include cystic and non-cystic (with microscopic focal necrosis) periventricular leukomalacia and non-necrotic diffuse white matter injury. Multiple etiologic factors are associated with these injuries. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of periventricular vascular structures predispose white matter to cerebral ischemia and, interacting with infection/inflammation factors, activate microglia, generating oxidative stress (mediated by free oxygen and nitrogen radicals), pro-inflammatory cytokine and glutamate toxicity, energetic failure and vascular integrity disturbances. All these factors lead to a particular vulnerability of pre-oligodendrocytes that will affect myelination. Hypoxia-ischemia also may produce selective neuronal necrosis in different cerebral regions. Germinal matrix is a highly vascularized zone beneath ependymal or periventricular region that constitutes a capillary bed with a particular structural fragility that predispose it to hemorrhage.
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The molecular mechanism of premature brain injury induced by inflammation is not fully understood. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play crucial roles in neurological disorders incl...
Cerebellar injury is increasingly recognized as a relevant complication of premature birth. However, the prevalence of reduced cerebellar growth and its consequences for neurodevelopmental outcome in ...
Even though lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is highly prevalent, few studies have investigated the neural mechanisms underlying PE.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is referred to any insult to the brain resulting in primary (direct) and secondary (indirect) damages to the brain parenchyma. Secondary damages are often linked to the mo...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death in the developed world. Despite advances at the bedside, pharmacological interventions have yet to be successful likely because of th...
Amplitude integrated encephalography (aEEG) is a monitor that measures brain activity by attaching leads to a baby's head, and is used routinely in term babies who have brain injury becaus...
This study is evaluating whether a bedside brainwave monitor can be used to detect early brain injury in premature infants.
This study is intended to see the effect of Mozart music on oxygen content of brain of premature infants once they achieve corrected gestation of 28-32 weeks and are clinically stable. Eac...
Preterm babies are at risk of brain injury. Melatonin, a naturally occurring hormone, may reduce this risk. The unborn baby receives melatonin from the mother but following premature deliv...
The highest risk for perinatal brain injury occurs among extremely premature infants who weigh less than 1250 grams at birth. Such perinatal brain injury is currently irreversible, associa...
Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
An injury in which the damage is located on the opposite side of the primary impact site. A blow to the back of head which results in contrecoup injury to the frontal lobes of the brain is the most common type.
A form of acquired brain injury which occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
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