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Black phosphorus (BP), a 2D semiconducting material of interest in electronics and photonics, exhibits physical properties characterized by strong anisotropy and band gap energy that scales with reducing layer number. However, the investigation of its intrinsic properties is challenging because thin layer BP are photo oxidized in ambient conditions and the energy of their electronic states shift in different dielectric environment. We prepared free-standing samples of few layer BP in glovebox conditions and probed the dielectric response in vacuum using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (STEM-EELS). Thresholds of the excitation energy are measured at 1.9 eV, 1.4 eV and 1.1 eV for the mono- bi- and tri-layer BP, respectively and these values are used to estimate the corresponding optical band gaps. A comparison of our results with electronic structure calculations indicates that the variation of the quasi-particle gap is larger than that of the exciton binding energy. The dispersion of the plasmons versus momentum for 1-3 layer BP and bulk BP highlights a deviation from parabolic to linear dispersion and strong anisotropic fingerprints.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nano letters
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A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
Free-standing facilities that provide prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care and usually incorporate family-centered maternity care concepts and practices.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
An inherited condition due to a deficiency of either LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE or APOLIPOPROTEIN C-II (a lipase-activating protein). The lack of lipase activities results in inability to remove CHYLOMICRONS and TRIGLYCERIDES from the blood which has a creamy top layer after standing.
Free-standing or supported light weight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.