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Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) garner increasing attention globally for both their usefulness as indicators of human waste and their potency as emerging organic toxicants. Three decades of rapid increase in PPCP study combined with an increasing number of PPCPs on the global market have created opportunity (1) to review trends in diversity of compounds, sewage treatment techniques (STTs), and ecosystems investigated as well as (2) to identify knowledge gaps in the literature. We conducted a quantitative evidence synthesis of 6,517 abstracts from primary articles in the environmental PPCP literature by examining relative abundance of specific PPCP classes, STTs, and ecosystem types. Our results demonstrate that non-prescription drugs and antibiotics dominated PPCP abstracts, appearing in 51% and 39% of reviewed abstracts respectively, in comparison to hormones (18%), prescription drugs (18%), fragrances (0.3%), and antioxidants (0.0%), which can all elicit physiological and ecological responses even at low concentrations. References to centralized STTs (e.g., activated sludge - 37%) were more frequent than decentralized STTs (e.g., septic - 2%), despite decentralized STTs being common and frequently high impact sources of sewage pollution worldwide. Freshwater lotic systems (63%) were more prevalent than freshwater lentic (24%) and terrestrial (20%) systems. This discrepancy is notable because the longer residence times of lentic and terrestrial systems may enable PPCPs to concentrate and thus increase risk of biological consequences. These results highlight distinct opportunities to address knowledge gaps in the environmental PPCP literature, including underrepresented compounds (e.g., fragrances), sewage treatment techniques (e.g., septic systems), and ecosystem types (e.g., lakes).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
Post-industrial era has witnessed significant advancements at unprecedented rates in the field of medicine and cosmetics, which has led to affluent use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (P...
The presence of PPCPs (Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products) in water sources and drinking water has concerned researchers in recent times. This study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence ...
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Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
Personal care items for women.
BIOLOGIC PRODUCTS that are imitations but not exact replicas of innovator products.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, QUALITY OF LIFE, etc. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
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BioPortfolio is a leading news, information and knowledge resource covering the global life science industries impacted on by biotechnology. The site aims to provide the lay person, the researcher and the management executive with a single location to so...
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