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Inorganic interfacial buffer layers have widely been employed for efficient and long lifetime optoelectronic devices due to their high carrier mobility and excellent chemical/thermal stability. In this paper, we developed a solution-processed inorganic tungsten phosphate (TPA) as hole injection layer (HIL) in inverted quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) achieving a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to ~20%. Further, the copper ions are doped into tungsten phosphate (Cu:TPA) which leads to an enhancement in hole injection due to increased hole mobility and conductivity of TPA as well as decreased hole injection barrier, enabling better charge balance in QLEDs and lower turn-on voltage from 5 to 2.5 V. Compared with the devices using conventional organic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (
PSS) HIL, the half-lifetime of Cu:TPA-based devices is over 3000 h at an initial brightness of 100 cd m-2, almost five-fold operating lifetime enhancement.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS applied materials & interfaces
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Nanometer sized fragments (the dots) of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They are brighter and more persistent than organic chemical INDICATORS. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.