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To facilitate infection, pathogens deploy a plethora of effectors to suppress basal host immunity induced by exogenous microbe-associated or endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In this study, we have characterized family 17 glycosyl hydrolases of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum (CfGH17) and studied their role in infection. Heterologous expression of CfGH17-1 to 5 by potato virus X in different tomato cultivars showed that CfGH17-1 and CfGH17-5 enzymes induce cell death in Cf-0, Cf-1 and Cf-5 but not in Cf-Ecp3 tomato cultivars or tobacco. Moreover, CfGH17-1 orthologues from other phytopathogens, including Dothistroma septosporum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis, also trigger cell death in tomato. CfGH17-1 and CfGH17-5 are predicted to be β-1,3-glucanases and their enzymatic activity is required for the induction of cell death. CfGH17-1 hydrolyses laminarin, a linear 1,3-β-glucan with 1,6-β linkages. CfGH17-1 expression is down-regulated during the biotrophic phase of infection and up-regulated during the necrotrophic phase. Deletion of CfGH17-1 in C. fulvum did not reduce virulence on tomato, while constitutive expression of CfGH17-1 decreased virulence, suggesting that abundant presence of CfGH17-1 during biotrophic growth may release a DAMP that activates plant defence responses. Under natural conditions CfGH17-1 is suggested to play a role during saprophytic growth when the fungus thrives on dead host tissue, which is in line with its high levels of expression at late stages of infection when host tissues have become necrotic. We suggest that CfGH17-1 releases a DAMP from the host cell wall that is recognized by a yet unknown host plant receptor.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular plant pathology
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A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The multifunctional protein that contains two enzyme domains. The first domain (EC 220.127.116.11) hydrolyzes glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine to a sugar and N-acylsphingosine. The second domain (EC 18.104.22.168) hydrolyzes LACTOSE and is found in the intestinal brush border membrane. Loss of activity for this enzyme in humans results in LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
A multiprotein complex that functions as a peptide hydrolase, or isopeptidase to cleave NEDD8 PROTEIN from the CULLIN and UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES, controlling the activity of the ligases. It is highly conserved in eukaryotes and typically consists of 8 subunits (CSN 1-8 proteins). The COP9 signalosome was originally identified in plants, where it controls gene transcription in response to light.
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