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The complex and successful evolutionary history of snakes produced variation in the position and structure of internal organs. Gravity strongly influences hemodynamics, and the impact on structure and function of the cardiovascular system, including pulmonary circulation, is well established. Therefore, we hypothesized that interspecific variation in the position of the heart and vascular (faveolar) lung should exceed that of other internal organs that are less sensitive to gravity. We examined the position of selected internal organs in 72 snakes representing 5 families and 13 species including fully aquatic and scansorial/arboreal species, representing the extremes of gravitational influence. Tests for differences of variance and coefficients of variation largely confirm that interspecific variation in position of the heart and vascular lung generally exceed those of other organs that we measured, particularly posterior organs. The variance of heart position generally exceeded that of more posterior organs, was similar to that of the anterior margin of the vascular lung, and was exceeded by that of the posterior margin of the vascular lung (variance ratio = 0.23). The gravity-sensitive vascular lung exhibited the greatest variation of any organ. Importantly, these findings corroborate previous research demonstrating the influence of gravity on cardiopulmonary morphology. Snakes offer useful model systems to help understand the adaptation of organs to a spectrum of conditions related to diversity of behavior and habitat across a broad range of related taxa.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of morphology
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An infraorder of snakes in the order Serpentes that includes all snakes except blind snakes and thread snakes.
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Elapid snakes indigenous to the Southern United States, Central, and South America. They are generally less than 1 meter in length and have a brightly-colored ringed pattern.
A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.
Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...