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Autophagy is widely considered as a housekeeping mechanism enabling cells to survive stress conditions and, in particular, nutrient deprivation. Autophagy begins with the formation of the phagophore that expands and closes around cytosolic material and damaged organelles destined for degradation. The execution of this complex machinery is guaranteed by the coordinated action of more than 40 ATG (Autophagy-related) proteins that control the entire process at different stages from the biogenesis of the autophagosome to cargo sequestration and fusion with lysosomes. Autophagosome biogenesis occurs at multiple intracellular sites, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM). Soon after the formation of the phagophore, the nascent autophagosome progressively grows in size and ultimately closes by recruiting intracellular membranes. In this review we focus on the contribution of three membrane sources - the ER, the ER-Golgi Intermediate Compartment (ERGIC) and the Golgi complex (GC) - to autophagosome biogenesis and expansion. We also highlight the interplay between the secretory pathway and autophagy in cells when nutrients are scarce.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: FEBS letters
Macrophages are major components of tuberculosis granulomas and are responsible for host defenses against the intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We herein showed the strong expression...
To assess the cytocompatibility of five commercially available xenogenic barrier membranes used for oral regenerative procedures and to determine the growth factor content of these membranes in-vitro.
Membrane distillation (MD) has been touted as a promising technology for niche applications such as desalination of surfactant- and oil-containing feed streams. Hitherto, the deployment of conventiona...
Membrane distillation (MD) has great potential in the treatment of high-salinity and low-biodegradability wastewater, but membrane fouling restricts its real applications. In this work, MD was applied...
Tumor cell nucleus is the ultimate target of many first-line chemotherapeutics and therapeutic genes. However, nuclear drug delivery is always hampered by multiple intracellular obstacles especially l...
Premature rupture of membranes refers to the rupture of the fetal membranes prior to the onset of labor. Premature rupture of membranes is associated with a number of neonatal and maternal...
This study of the tolerance and acceptability of an amino acid based feed will assess gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance, product intake and acceptability in relation to taste, smell, texture...
The purpose of this study is to assess if an enteral ketogenic feed will cause a ketotic state in critically ill patients on intensive care.
When patients cannot eat and drink enough a tube can be placed through their nostril, down the back of their throat into their stomach and used to give their nutrition as a liquid feed. On...
The over-arching aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of administrating alternative substrates to intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This includes reconstituting and admini...
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Adhd Anorexia Depression Dyslexia Mental Health Psychiatry Schizophrenia Stress Mental health, although not being as obvious as physical health, is very important, causing great unhappiness to those affected, causing add...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...