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Hijacking intracellular membranes to feed autophagosomal growth.

08:00 EDT 11th October 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Hijacking intracellular membranes to feed autophagosomal growth."

Autophagy is widely considered as a housekeeping mechanism enabling cells to survive stress conditions and, in particular, nutrient deprivation. Autophagy begins with the formation of the phagophore that expands and closes around cytosolic material and damaged organelles destined for degradation. The execution of this complex machinery is guaranteed by the coordinated action of more than 40 ATG (Autophagy-related) proteins that control the entire process at different stages from the biogenesis of the autophagosome to cargo sequestration and fusion with lysosomes. Autophagosome biogenesis occurs at multiple intracellular sites, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM). Soon after the formation of the phagophore, the nascent autophagosome progressively grows in size and ultimately closes by recruiting intracellular membranes. In this review we focus on the contribution of three membrane sources - the ER, the ER-Golgi Intermediate Compartment (ERGIC) and the Golgi complex (GC) - to autophagosome biogenesis and expansion. We also highlight the interplay between the secretory pathway and autophagy in cells when nutrients are scarce.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: FEBS letters
ISSN: 1873-3468
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.

Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.

Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.

Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.

Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.

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