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There is some evidence that female sex workers (FSWs) receive greater earnings for providing unprotected sex. In 2003, the landscape of the fight against HIV/AIDS dramatically changed in India with the introduction of Avahan, the largest HIV prevention programme implemented globally. Using a unique, cross-sectional bio-behavioural dataset from 3591 FSWs located in the four Indian states where Avahan was implemented, we estimate the economic loss faced by FSWs who always use condoms. We estimate the causal effect of condom use on the price charged during the last paid sexual intercourse using the random targeting of Avahan as an instrumental variable. Results indicate that FSWs who always use condoms face an income loss of 65% (INR125, US$2.60) per sex act compared to peers providing unprotected sex, consistent with our expectations. The main finding confirms that clients have a preference for unprotected sex and that policies aiming at changing clients' preferences and at improving the bargaining power of FSWs are required to limit the spread of HIV.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Health policy and planning
Concerns about the use of child labor in West African cocoa production became widespread in the early 2000s in many high-income countries. In 2015 in Ghana, 91.8% (or a total of 878,595) of the childr...
The Affordable Care Act established two federally funded subsidies-cost-sharing reductions and premium tax credits-available in the health insurance Marketplaces. In 2018 federal payments to insurers ...
: Depression is a global public health threat and its treatment constitutes drugs in psychopharmacology, a domain that is rapidly growing with addition of newer agents in market that are of high cost....
Price transparency initiatives have recently emerged as a solution to the lack of health care price information available to consumers. This paper uses the staggered and nationwide diffusion of a lead...
The value of a statistical life (VSL) is a widely used measure for the value of mortality risk reduction. As VSL should reflect preferences and attitudes to risk, there are reasons to believe that it ...
The A-One study is a prospective, randomized controlled trial evaluating the use of the One Drop | Premium 'On Track' in combination with Afrezza treatment on the glycemic control, treatme...
The investigators' study seeks to explore the impact of price information on physicians' ordering behavior and care quality. The investigators will evaluate the impact of the physician pri...
This is a study about how the price of foods affects food buying choices at the grocery store. The price of foods can have a big impact on what people choose to buy and prices change over ...
This is a study about how the price of foods affects buying choices at the grocery store. The price of foods can have a big impact on what people choose to buy and prices change over time....
The purpose of this research is to study how the price of foods affects food buying choices at the grocery store. The researchers are interested in this topic because the price of foods ca...
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, QUALITY OF LIFE, etc. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.
Works consisting of lists giving the prices of items for sale, including drugs, equipment, books, etc. Price lists are less detailed than catalogs and not as long.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
AIDS and HIV
AIDS; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV; Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infection causes AIDS. HIV infection also causes the production of anti-HIV antibodies, which forms the test for HIV in patients. People who have the HIV antibodies are ...
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