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To restrict pathogens, in a normal human cell, APOBEC3 enzymes mutate cytosine to uracil in foreign single-stranded DNAs. However, in cancer cells, APOBEC3B (one of seven APOBEC3 enzymes) has been identified as the primary source of genetic mutations. As such, APOBEC3B promotes evolution and progression of cancers and leads to development of drug resistance in multiple cancers. As APOBEC3B is a non-essential protein, its inhibition can be used to suppress emergence of drug resistance in existing anti-cancer therapies. Because of the vital role of APOBEC3 enzymes in innate immunity, selective inhibitors targeting only APOBEC3B are required. Here, we use the discriminative properties of wild-type APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B and APOBEC3G to deaminate different cytosines in the CCC-recognition motif in order to best place the cytidine analogue 2'-deoxyzebularine (dZ) in the CCC-motif. Using several APOBEC3 variants that mimic deamination patterns of wild-type enzymes, we demonstrate that selective inhibition of APOBEC3B in preference to other APOBEC3 constructs is feasible for the dZCC motif. This work is an important step towards development of in vivo tools to inhibit APOBEC3 enzymes in living cells by using short, chemically modified oligonucleotides.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Organic & biomolecular chemistry
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Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
An APOBEC deaminase that functions as an inhibitor of RETROVIRIDAE replication and inhibits the mobility of RETROTRANSPOSONS via deaminase-dependent and independent mechanisms. It is selective for SINGLE-STRANDED DNA and does not deaminate double-stranded DNA or single or DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It exhibits potent antiviral activity against VIF PROTEIN deficient HIV-1 through the creation of hypermutations in the VIRAL DNA. It also has anti-viral activity against SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES and HEPATITIS B VIRUS.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
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