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This study presents the results of a seasonal municipal solid waste composition campaign, that took place over the period of September 2017 to June 2018 in the capital city of Kazakhstan, Astana. Four sampling campaigns were conducted in order to identify the seasonal variation of municipal solid waste composition, recyclables and energy potential materials, such as combustible fraction, useful for the evaluation of waste-to-energy potential. The combustible fraction was analysed for thermal fuel properties, such as proximate and elemental analyses and gross calorific value. The results over the four different seasons showed that the average recyclable fraction of municipal solid waste on a wet basis of 33.3 wt.% and combustibles fraction was 8.3 wt.%. The largest fraction was the organics (47.2 wt.%), followed by plastic (15.4 wt.%) and paper (12.5 wt.%). Small seasonal variations were observed for organics, paper, plastic and glass fractions. The highest values were found in summer for the organic waste, in spring for paper and plastic and autumn for glass. The recyclables fraction showed an absolute seasonal variation of 5.7% with a peak in the winter season (35.4%) and the combustibles fraction showed a seasonal variation between 8.3 wt.% to 9.4 wt.%. Finally, the average calorific value of the combustible fraction was estimated to be 21.6 MJ kg on a dry basis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA
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Hospitals controlled by the city government.
Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.
Waste products which, upon release into the atmosphere, water or soil, cause health risks to humans or animals through skin contact, inhalation or ingestion. Hazardous waste sites which contain hazardous waste substances go here.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A process of waste disposal involving the conversion of green waste (i.e. leaves, organic matter, food waste, manure) into soil-enhancing matter.