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Front-of-package (FOP) labels may help shoppers make healthier food choices. The objectives of this review are, first, to establish the effectiveness of different FOP labels at enabling shoppers to identify which foods are healthy and which are not healthy, and, second, to assess whether different FOP labels induce shoppers to buy healthier foods. Some labels are nutrient-specific, such as Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL) and Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA). These labels state the content per serving of energy and of several substances, most commonly saturated fat, sugar, and sodium (or salt). Warning labels are another type of nutrient-specific FOP label (e.g., for food high in added sugar). Summary labels, such as Nutri-Score and labels with stars, translate the components of the food into a single value that indicates how healthy it is. Studies on FOP labels lack consistency. The majority of such studies indicate that they help shoppers to distinguish between healthy and less healthy foods. The designs that appear to be most successful in this regard are MTL, warning labels, and Nutri-Score. Labels based on GDA or that included stars were much less successful. Many studies using a simulated shopping situation reported that shoppers exposed to FOP labels had an increased intent to purchase healthier foods. Warning labels were the most consistently successful FOP design followed by MTL, Nutri-Score, and labels that included stars, while GDA failed in almost every study. Very few studies have been carried out in real-world supermarkets; the findings indicate that FOP labels or shelf labels may achieve a small degree of success (<2.0%) at persuading shoppers to buy healthier foods. Those advocating for effective FOP labels must resist opposition from food corporations.
This article was published in the following journal.
Interpretive front-of-package nutrition labelling can contribute to healthier food habits. This systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of interpretive front-of-package nutrition labellin...
To determine which front-of-package label (out of 5 formats) is most effective at guiding consumers toward healthier food choices. Respondents from Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Fra...
Chile's Law of Food Labeling and Advertising, implemented in 2016, was the first national regulation to jointly mandate front-of-package warning labels, restrict child-directed marketing, and ban sale...
Front-of-pack labeling is a cost-effective strategy to decrease population consumption of sodium, sugar, saturated fat, total fat, and trans-fatty acids, considered critical nutrients for chronic dise...
We will provide insights in the theoretical background and key concepts of a Narrative Care approach, such as narrative cultures, narrative curiosity, narrative co-composition and narrative reflective...
Most studies on menu labels have been conducted in mostly non-Hispanic white individuals, and how menu labels affect calories and macronutrients ordered in Hispanics is not clearly underst...
The effect of three front of pack (FOP) labeling schemes (Mexican Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Ecuador's Multiple Traffic Light (MTL) and Chilean Warning Labels (WL) in red) on purchasin...
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a significant contributor to adult and childhood obesity. Policies to place health warning labels on sugar-sweetened beverages are being pursued, but t...
The aim of this study is to compare different sugary drink labels to see which most influence knowledge, beliefs, purchase intentions and choices. Parents of children ages 6-11 will shop i...
This is an online study that aims to test the effectiveness of Interpretative Nutrition Rating Systems (INRS) such as the Health Star Rating System (HSR or Star System), traffic light syst...
Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Organizations representing designated geographic areas which have contracts under the PRO program to review the medical necessity, appropriateness, quality, and cost-effectiveness of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. Peer Review Improvement Act, PL 97-248, 1982.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...