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Poor sleep quality is prevalent among older adults and is compounded by frailty and polypharmacy. This descriptive, cross-sectional study examines the associations between sleep quality, inappropriate medication use and frailty. The study was conducted among 151 residents of 11 aged care homes in three states in Malaysia; convenience sampling was used. Subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) was used to assess frailty. Medication appropriateness was assessed using Drug burden Index (DBI), Potentially Inappropriate Medications (PIMs) and Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions (PIPs). Most of the subjects (approximately 95%) reported poor sleep quality, as measured by a cut-off of global PSQI score of ≥ 5. With a second cut-off at 10, just over half (56%) reported moderately poor sleep quality followed by 39% who had very poor sleep quality. Most (90%) denied taking medication to improve their sleep during the previous month. There was no statistically significant association between medication inappropriateness (PIMs, PIPs, DBI) and global PSQI score. However, the average number of PIM was associated significantly with sleep efficiency (a measure of the actual 'sleep to total time spent in bed) (p = 0.037). The average number of PIP was associated with subjective sleep quality (p = 0.045) and the use of sleep medications (p = 0.001), and inversely associated with sleep disturbance (0.049). Furthermore, frailty correlated significantly with poor overall sleep quality (p = 0.032). Findings support the need for medication review to identify and reduce PIMs and optimise prescriptions to improve sleep quality and hence, related health outcomes among residents of aged care homes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A list, criteria, or screening tool designed to improve PATIENT SAFETY by determining an individual's exposure to potentially inappropriate drugs. They are designed to prevent MEDICATION ERRORS by INAPPROPRIATE PRESCRIBING. Analysis for a list includes factors such as DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP, DRUG; DRUG-RELATED SIDE EFFECTS AND ADVERSE REACTIONS; AGE FACTORS; GENDER; and existing medical conditions.
Habits and practices conducive to getting the right amount and quality of sleep, and include responding to environmental factors that may influence one's sleep.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
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