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Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are a form of autologous immunotherapy that has changed the therapeutic landscape of hematologic malignancies. CAR T cell therapy involves collection of a patient's T cells by apheresis, ex vivo genetic modification of the T cells to encode a synthetic receptor that binds a specific tumor antigen, and infusion of the T cells back into the patient. With the unprecedented success of CAR T cells in leukemia and lymphoma, a growing number of preclinical studies and clinical trials have focused on translating this treatment to solid tumors. In non-hematologic malignancies, however, response rates have been much less favorable. Some of the most significant challenges for CAR T cell immunotherapy in solid cancers include a paucity of unique tumor target antigens, limited CAR T cell trafficking to tumor sites, tumor heterogeneity and antigen loss, and the severely immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. This review article provides an update on completed and ongoing clinical trials of CAR T cells for solid tumors, as well as an overview of strategies to improve CAR T cell efficacy in non-hematologic malignancies.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pharmacology & therapeutics
Unprecedented efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in the treatment of hematologic malignancies brings new hope for patients with many cancer types including solid tumors. Howeve...
Pediatric solid tumors have long been known to shed tumor cells, DNA, RNA, and proteins into the blood. Recent technological advances have allowed for improved capture and analysis of these typically ...
Pediatric extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are rare, aggressive tumors with a poor prognosis (20% 5-year survival). There are currently fewer than 10 published case reports of primary MRT o...
Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T cells) have proven to be highly effective for treating CD19 B cell-derived hematologic malignancies. However,...
Central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from systemic cancers can involve the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges (pia, subarachnoid space and arachnoid mater), and dura. Leptomeningeal metastases (LM), a...
Immunotherapy has become the major breakthrough and the most promising treatment, with the host of development of tumor biology, molecular biology and immunology. We have developed anti-RO...
This is a single-center, open, single-arm controlled prospective clinical trial of patients with solid tumors treated with targeted activation of T cells through intravenous infusion.The p...
The objective of this study is to obtain blood samples, solid tumor and/or benign hyperplasia samples to learn more about genetic differences that are linked to the formation of solid tumo...
clinical study on the safety and efficacy of PD1 combined with dc-Nk in the treatment of solid tumors
Multiple solid tumors have positive targets of mesothelin expressed on the surfaces of the tumor cells, the investigators use the technique of CRISPR-Cas9 to knocked out the PD-1 of the ch...
A smooth, solid or cystic fibroepithelial (FIBROEPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS) tumor, usually found in the OVARIES but can also be found in the adnexal region and the KIDNEYS. It consists of a fibrous stroma with nests of epithelial cells that sometimes resemble the transitional cells lining the urinary bladder. Brenner tumors generally are benign and asymptomatic. Malignant Brenner tumors have been reported.
Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...