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Clinical investigation of CAR T cells for solid tumors: lessons learned and future directions.

08:00 EDT 16th October 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Clinical investigation of CAR T cells for solid tumors: lessons learned and future directions."

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are a form of autologous immunotherapy that has changed the therapeutic landscape of hematologic malignancies. CAR T cell therapy involves collection of a patient's T cells by apheresis, ex vivo genetic modification of the T cells to encode a synthetic receptor that binds a specific tumor antigen, and infusion of the T cells back into the patient. With the unprecedented success of CAR T cells in leukemia and lymphoma, a growing number of preclinical studies and clinical trials have focused on translating this treatment to solid tumors. In non-hematologic malignancies, however, response rates have been much less favorable. Some of the most significant challenges for CAR T cell immunotherapy in solid cancers include a paucity of unique tumor target antigens, limited CAR T cell trafficking to tumor sites, tumor heterogeneity and antigen loss, and the severely immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. This review article provides an update on completed and ongoing clinical trials of CAR T cells for solid tumors, as well as an overview of strategies to improve CAR T cell efficacy in non-hematologic malignancies.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Pharmacology & therapeutics
ISSN: 1879-016X
Pages: 107419

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A smooth, solid or cystic fibroepithelial (FIBROEPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS) tumor, usually found in the OVARIES but can also be found in the adnexal region and the KIDNEYS. It consists of a fibrous stroma with nests of epithelial cells that sometimes resemble the transitional cells lining the urinary bladder. Brenner tumors generally are benign and asymptomatic. Malignant Brenner tumors have been reported.

Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)

Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.

Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).

Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)

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