Micro(RNA) management and mismanagement of the islet.

08:00 EDT 16th October 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Micro(RNA) management and mismanagement of the islet."

Pancreatic β-cells located within the islets of Langerhans play a central role in metabolic control. The main function of these cells is to produce and secrete insulin in response to a rise in circulating levels of glucose and other nutrients. The release of insufficient insulin to cover the organism needs results in chronic hyperglycemia and diabetes development. β-cells insure a highly specialized task and to efficiently accomplish their function they need to express a specific set of genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs and key regulators of gene expression. Indeed, by partially pairing to specific sequences in the 3' untranslated regions of target mRNAs, each of them can control the translation of hundreds of transcripts. In this review, we focus on few key miRNAs controlling islet function and discuss: their differential expression in Type 2 diabetes (T2D), their regulation by genetic and environmental factors, and their therapeutic potential. Genetic and epigenetic changes or prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia can affect the β-cell miRNA expression profile, resulting in impaired β-cell function and survival leading to the development of T2D. Experimental approaches permitting to correct the level of mis-expressed miRNAs have been shown to prevent or treat T2D in animal models, suggesting that these small RNAs may become interesting therapeutic targets. However, translation of these experimental findings to the clinics will necessitate the development of innovative strategies allowing safe and specific delivery of compounds modulating the level of the relevant miRNAs to the β-cells.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Journal of molecular biology
ISSN: 1089-8638


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [8882 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Frequency of Obliteration of the Dorsal and Ventral Ducts of the Pancreas in Islet Transplantation.

Islet isolation is an essential process in every human islet transplantation protocol. Intraductal enzyme delivery followed by adequate distention of the pancreas is the most critical step in islet is...

Birth and coming of age of islet autoantibodies.

This review takes the reader through 45 years of islet autoantibody research, from the discovery of islet-cell antibodies in 1974 to today's population-based screening for presymptomatic early-stage t...

Islet macrophages are associated with islet vascular remodeling and compensatory hyperinsulinemia during diabetes.

ABSTRACTAims/hypothesis: β-cells respond to peripheral insulin resistance by first increasing circulating insulin during diabetes. Islet remodeling supports this compensation but its drivers remain p...

Bilirubin improves the quality and function of hypothermic preserved islets by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect.

Islet transplantation is a promising option for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the current lack of practical techniques for the isolated islets preservation still hampers the advancement o...

Heterogeneity of human pancreatic islet isolation around Europe: results of a survey study.

Europe is currently the most active region in the field of pancreatic islet transplantation and many of the leading groups are actually achieving similar good outcomes. Further collaborative advances ...

Clinical Trials [3898 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Quality Control of Pancreatic Islet Intended to Islet Graft Cells Intended to Stabilot Islet Graft Protocol

Islet quality control after pancreatic islets isolation process is insufficient. The Islet Chip study proposes to develop a bio-sensor that will allow a multi-parametric analysis of islet ...

Islet Allotransplantation for Type 1 Diabetic Patients

The purpose of this study is to determine if islet cell transplantation , is an effective treatment for type 1 diabetes. Study participants may receive up to three islet transplants and wi...

Islet Transplantation in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

Our hypothesis is that a successful clinical islet transplant program can be established at the University of Wisconsin using a steroid -free, sirolimus- and low dose tacrolimus - based im...

Islet Transplant in Patients With Type I Diabetes

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate the safety of allogenic islet transplantation in type 1 diabetic patients performed at the University of Virginia. The purpose is to ...

Pancreatic Islet Transplantation Into the Anterior Chamber of the Eye

The treatment in this trial consists of intraocular islet transplantation. A single dose of 1000 - 2000 Islet Equivalents (IEQ)/kg recipient body weight (BW) will be infused into the anter...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.

The management of all procurement, distribution, and storage of equipment and supplies, as well as logistics management including laundry, processing of reusables, etc.

Participation of employees with management as a labor-management team, in decisions pertaining to the operational activities of the organization or industry.

Business management of medical and dental practices that may include capital financing, utilization management, and arrangement of capitation agreements with other parties.

Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.

Quick Search

DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Pancreatic Cancer
The pancreas secretes a number of important hormones into the digestive tract and the blood stream. Cancers are most commonly exocrine than endocrine (neuroendocrine) tumors. Functional tumors secrete hormones; Insulinoma, Gastrinoma, Somatostatinoma, VI...

Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...

Searches Linking to this Article