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Increasing obesity and overweight has led to increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in adolescents and young adults all over the world. Overweight naturally reduces insulin sensitivity. The following permanent insulin resistance can be found even in younger obese children. Beta-cell insufficiency following high insulin production over years leads to impaired glucose tolerance and later type 2 diabetes mellitus. In children and adolescents, the diagnosis of T2D is often made by screening very obese patients with oral glucose tolerance test. Usually in these patients, few or no diabetes symptoms are found. As frequently found in pediatric pharmacotherapy, only a few of the modern substances used in adults are available for pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The essential change in lifestyle for weight reduction is difficult in this age group with often rather disappointing results.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Handbook of experimental pharmacology
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A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by excessive LIPOLYSIS, oxidation of FATTY ACIDS, production of KETONE BODIES, a sweet smell to the breath (KETOSIS;) DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
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