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Objective assessment of upper limb physiological features may allow for early detection and proper intervention for lymphedema after breast surgery. However, the development of diagnostic instruments and standard measurement procedures are required. Four instruments (Venustron, Softmeasure, Myoton Pro, and iBDent), tape measurement, and water volumetry were investigated in this study. Inter-limb differences in physiological data were obtained from 40 patients with lymphedema after breast surgery and 38 control subjects. Four instruments and tape measurements were performed at four points. Inter-limb differences between patients with lymphedema and control subjects were determined. All measurements took <20 minutes with minimal pain reported. Inter-limb differences in water volumetry and tape measurements, especially when measured at 5 cm distal to the cubital fossa, were increased in International Society of Lymphology (ISL) stage II cases. All four instruments showed high reproducibility in standard silicon sample measurement. On the other hand, data from human samples were varied, and the utility for assessment of lymphedema was not determined. Water volumetry and tape measurement at 5 cm distal to the cubital fossa were useful to assess lymphedema in ISL stage II cases. Four instruments used in this study were feasible in clinical practice. In addition, inconsistent data from human tissue were not due to sensor limitations, rather, acquisition of accurate data from human tissue seemed to be difficult due to anatomical factors. In addition to high-quality sensor, development of system that produce accurate and reproducible results from human tissue is required.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Lymphatic research and biology
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The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.
Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.
A malignant tumor originating from the endothelial cells of lymphatic vessels. Most lymphangiosarcomas arise in an arm secondary to radical mastectomy but they sometimes complicate idiopathic lymphedema. The lymphedema has usually been present for 6 to 10 years before malignant changes develop. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)
Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
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