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Pharmaceuticals are organic compounds used in medicines for alleviation of pain. Since 2017, there has been a steady increase on the availability of information on contamination of water resources caused by pharmaceuticals in some African countries. Thus far, most environmental monitoring studies of pharmaceuticals are conducted in South Africa while there is still no available data in majority of the African countries. Therefore, the knowledge on the presence of pharmaceuticals in African water resources is still lacking. In an attempt to provide more information in this aspect, this review article seeks to critically evaluate the progress made thus far by the African scientists in the environmental monitoring and assessment of pharmaceuticals. The most studied groups of pharmaceuticals in Africa are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antiretroviral drugs and steroid hormones. Various remediation studies for selected pharmaceuticals in Africa are documented in literature. In the present review, the challenges facing the African researchers or countries on providing more scientific data on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water are discussed. Furthermore, the gaps and recommendations for future work are given.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of environmental management
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Preservation and or management of WATER RESOURCES especially under conditions of scarce supply.
Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
A center in the HEALTH RESOURCES ADMINISTRATION Division of Planning Methods and Technology which provides access to current information on health planning and resources development.
BioPortfolio - life science, medical devices and pharmaceutical conference
BioPortfolio is a leading news, information and knowledge resource covering the global life science industries impacted on by biotechnology. The site aims to provide the lay person, the researcher and the management executive with a single location to so...
Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage”. Some illnesses can be excruci...
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...