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The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) can be computed from readily accessible, public-use data on cancer incidence and mortality, and a high MIR value is an indicator of poor survival relative to incidence. Newly available data on congressional district-specific cancer incidence and mortality from the U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) database from 2011 to 2015 were used to compute MIR values for overall (all types combined), breast, cervix, colorectal, esophagus, lung, oral, pancreas, and prostate cancer. Congressional districts in the South and Midwest, including MS, AL, and KY, had higher (worse) MIR values for all cancer types combined than for the U.S. as a whole. For all cancers combined, there was a positive correlation between each district's percent of rural residents and the MIR (r = 0.47; p < .001). The MIR for all cancer types combined was lower in districts within states that expanded Medicaid vs. those states that did not expand Medicaid (0.36 vs. 0.38; p < .001). A positive correlation was seen between the proportion of non-Hispanic Black residents and MIR (r = 0.15; p < .01 for all cancers). Lower MIRs were observed in districts in New England and in states that expanded Medicaid. However, there also were some interesting departures from this rule (e.g., Wyoming, South Dakota, parts of Wisconsin and Florida). Rural congressional districts have generally higher MIRs than more urban districts. There is some concern that poorer, more rural states that did not expand Medicaid may experience greater disparities in MIRs relative to Medicaid expansion states in the future.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Preventive medicine
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Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
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