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Complex structure and structure-function relationship of biopharmaceuticals require extensive analytical characterization and appropriate quality control of the products. Despite rapid development of sophisticated physicochemical techniques, biological activity measurement remains the critical role in inferring the high-order structure of biopharmaceuticals. Cell-based biological assays are mostly applied to determine the biological activity of biopharmaceuticals, however, refined biological assays are continually needed to increase their robustness. Reporter gene assays (RGAs) which are mechanism of action (MOA) related, less variable, accurate, precise, and labor-saving are becoming more and more recognized and adopted in the quality control. Here we discuss the importance of bioactivity determination, the strength and weakness of various assay formats with RGAs. We also introduce the mechanism of RGAs, and present a number of examples for RGAs to determine the bioactivity of various biopharmaceuticals, which indicate their extensive use in the screening, characterization, quality control, stability and biosimilarity study. We believe that with the rapid development of biotechnology, new strategies of bioassays based on RGAs will be more widely applied in various fields of biopharmaceuticals.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biotechnology advances
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Techniques used to add in exogenous gene sequence such as mutated genes; REPORTER GENES, to study mechanisms of gene expression; or regulatory control sequences, to study effects of temporal changes to GENE EXPRESSION.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine sequence or to detect variations in a gene sequence or expression or for gene mapping.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Immunoassay - ELISA
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