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The dismantling of structural objects during decommissioning of nuclear facilities needs radioactive source characterization for the planning of decommissioning strategies in compliance with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. The sources may arise from neutron activation of the structural components in the reactor core as well as contamination due to the radioactive release from the fuel occurred during normal operation or unplanned events in a nuclear power plant (NPP). In a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), various incore components are predominantly made of either zircaloy - 2 or 4. The nuclides present as impurity in the zircaloy, play a crucial role in the activity inventory due to neutron activation of those nuclides, which in turn determine the external gamma dose rate. The activity of the activation products depend on the neutron flux seen by the component, duration of irradiation and cooling period, half-lives of the daughter products and amount of the impurities present in the structural components. To illustrate this, a guide tube made up of zircaloy - 4 has been considered. A guide tube assembly is a part of the primary shut down system (PSS) which guides the movement of absorber elements in the upward and downward direction in the calandria. This study has identified and quantified the activity inventory in a guide tube at the end of the operation of the reactor using the ORIGEN2 code, and then estimated the associated external gamma dose-rate using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The findings will help the management of radioactive waste, cost optimization and collective dose budgeting during the decommissioning stage of a typical PHWR.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of radiological protection : official journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Male gametophytes of most seed plants deliver sperm to eggs via a pollen tube. Pollen tube growth rates (PTGRs) of angiosperms are exceptionally rapid, a pattern attributed to more effective haploid s...
Our brains can integrate emotional signals from visual and auditory modalities, which is important for our daily social interactions and survival. Although behavioral effects of facilitation or interf...
Ultrasound poroelastography is a non-invasive imaging modality that has been shown to be capable of estimating mechanical parameters such as Young's modulus (YM), Poisson's ratio (PR) and vascular per...
Heart rate (HR) is an important physiological signal that reflects the physical and emotional status of a person. Traditional HR measurements usually rely on contact monitors, which may cause inconven...
Calcium (Ca ) dysregulation has been linked to neuronal cell death, including in hereditary retinal degeneration. Ca dysregulation is thought to cause rod and cone photoreceptor cell death. Spatial an...
A randomized controlled prospective study of orogastric tube placement with the Gastric Tube Guide vs conventional placement.
The primary objective is to identify which patients undergoing a traditional pterional approach with 2 different surgical techniques for TMS (Temporal Muscle Suspension) will develop TH (T...
Gastrostomy tube (G-tube) complications, such as granulation tissue formation and tube dislodgements, are frequent causes of emergency department visits. The investigators have developed t...
It has been widely accepted that a split of the deep temporal fascia occurs approximately 2 to 3 cm above the zygomatic arch, named the superficial and deep layers. The deep layer of the d...
For Head and neck cancer and uncooperative patients, blind nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion may sometimes be very difficult because of the anatomical obstructions in the pharynx and uncoor...
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Evolution at the molecular level of DNA sequences and proteins. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...