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Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) is responsible for causing the economically devastating disease, enterotoxaemia, in livestock. It is well accepted that ETX causes blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, however the mechanisms involved in this process are not well understood. Using in vivo and in vitro methods, we determined that ETX causes BBB permeability in mice by increasing caveolae-dependent transcytosis in brain endothelial cells. When mice are intravenously injected with ETX, robust ETX binding is observed in the microvasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) with limited to no binding observed in the vasculature of peripheral organs, indicating that ETX specifically targets CNS endothelial cells. ETX binding to CNS microvasculature is dependent on MAL expression, as ETX binding to CNS microvasculature of MAL-deficient mice was not detected. ETX treatment also induces extravasation of molecular tracers including 376Da fluorescein salt, 60kDA serum albumin, 70kDa dextran, and 155kDA IgG. Importantly, ETX-induced BBB permeability requires expression of both MAL and caveolin-1, as mice deficient in MAL or caveolin-1 did not exhibit ETX-induced BBB permeability. Examination of primary murine brain endothelial cells revealed an increase in caveolae in ETX-treated cells, resulting in dynamin and lipid raft-dependent vacuolation without cell death. ETX-treatment also results in a rapid loss of EEA1 positive early endosomes and accumulation of large, RAB7-positive late endosomes and multivesicular bodies. Based on these results, we hypothesize that ETX binds to MAL on the apical surface of brain endothelial cells, causing recruitment of caveolin-1, triggering caveolae formation and internalization. Internalized caveolae fuse with early endosomes which traffic to late endosomes and multivesicular bodies. We believe that these multivesicular bodies fuse basally, releasing their contents into the brain parenchyma.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS pathogens
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) is hypothesized to mediate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability by binding to the myelin and lymphocyte protein (MAL) on the luminal surface of endothelia...
Epsilon toxin (Etx) produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, a major causative agent of enterotoxaemia causes significant economic losses to animal industry. Conventional vaccines against th...
Epsilon toxin (Etx), a potent pore forming toxin (PFT) produced by Clostridium perfringens, is responsible for the pathogenesis of enterotoxaemia of ruminants and has been suggested to play a role in ...
Clostridium perfringens type A is the causative agent of gas gangrene and gastroenteric ("yellow lamb disease") disease in ruminants, with C. perfringens alpha toxin (CPA) being the main virulence fac...
Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen of human and livestock infections, posing a threat to health. The horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of plasmids that carry toxin-related genes is involved...
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The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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