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Fibrin sealants are commonly used in cartilage repair surgeries to adhere cells or grafts into a cartilage defect. Both autologous and commercial allogeneic fibrin sealants are used in cartilage repair surgeries, yet there are no studies characterizing and comparing the mechanical properties of fibrin sealants from all-autologous sources. The objectives of this study were to investigate (i) the effect of fibrinogen and thrombin sources on failure mechanics of sealants, and (ii) how sealants affect the adhesion of particulated cartilage graft material (BioCartilage) to surrounding cartilage under physiological loading. Allogeneic thrombin and fibrinogen were purchased (Tisseel), and autologous sources were prepared from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) generated from human blood. To compare failure characteristics, sealants were sandwiched between cartilage explants and pulled to failure. The effect of sealant on the adhesion of BioCartilage graft to cartilage was determined by quantifying microscale strains at the graft-cartilage interface using an in vitro cartilage defect model subjected to shear loading at physiological strains well below failure thresholds. Fibrinogen sources were not equivalent; PRP fibrinogen created sealants that were more brittle, failed at lower strains, and resulted in sustained higher strains through the graft-cartilage interface depth compared to PPP and allogeneic sources. PPP clotted slower compared to PRP, suggesting PPP may percolate deeper into the repair to provide more stability through the tissue depth. There was no difference in bulk failure properties or microscale strains at the graft-cartilage interface between the purely autologous sealant (autologous thrombin + PPP fibrinogen) and the commercial allogeneic sealant. Clinical Significance: All-autologous fibrin sealants fabricated with PPP have comparable adhesion strength as commercial allogeneic sealants in vitro, whereas PRP creates an inferior all-autologous sealant that sustains higher strains through the graft-cartilage interface depth.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Retraction of a clot resulting from contraction of PLATELET pseudopods attached to FIBRIN strands. The retraction is dependent on the contractile protein thrombosthenin. Clot retraction is used as a measure of platelet function.
A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.
A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.
Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.
A measurement of the time needed for FIBRINOLYSIS to occur.
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