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In many cognitive tasks, lapses (spontaneous errors) are tacitly dismissed as the result of nuisance processes like sensorimotor noise, fatigue, or disengagement. However, some lapses could also be caused by exploratory noise: randomness in behavior that facilitates learning in changing environments. If so, then strategic processes would need only up-regulate (rather than generate) exploration to adapt to a changing environment. This view predicts that more frequent lapses should be associated with greater flexibility because these behaviors share a common cause. Here, we report that when rhesus macaques performed a set-shifting task, lapse rates were negatively correlated with perseverative error frequency across sessions, consistent with a common basis in exploration. The results could not be explained by local failures to learn. Furthermore, chronic exposure to cocaine, which is known to impair cognitive flexibility, did increase perseverative errors, but, surprisingly, also improved overall set-shifting task performance by reducing lapse rates. We reconcile these results with a state-switching model in which cocaine decreases exploration by deepening attractor basins corresponding to rule states. These results support the idea that exploratory noise contributes to lapses, affecting rule-based decision-making even when it has no strategic value, and suggest that one key mechanism for regulating exploration may be the depth of rule states.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PLoS computational biology
CARs are synthetic receptors designed to drive antigen-specific activation upon binding of the scFv to its cognate antigen. However, CARs can also elicit different levels of ligand-independent constit...
Cognitive and behavioral flexibility are important predictors of adaptive behavior in school-age autistic youth. While prior research has utilized broad measures of flexibility, the current study uses...
We have previously shown that supraspinal excitability is higher during arm cycling than a position- and intensity-matched tonic contraction. The present study sought to determine if short-interval in...
The exploration of time-varying functional connectivity (FC) through human neuroimaging techniques provides important new insights on the spatio-temporal organization of functional communication in th...
Naive CD4 T cells are an example of dynamic cell homeostasis: T cells need to avoid autoreactivity while constantly seeing self-peptides, yet they must be primed to react to foreign antigens during ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of an investigational new drug for supplemental therapy in subjects with primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizu...
ADHD is a common disorder, leading to a significant disability that often persists in adulthood. ADHD is characterized by attentional disturbances that are difficult to asses with standard...
The objectives of this study are to investigate if Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) will impact back and leg flexibility over both the short-term and the long-term. It is hypothesized that...
This study is designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of perampanel on Primary Generalized Tonic Clonic (PGTC) seizure frequency in adolescents and adults main...
Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) has been a well-established treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome with associated legs and/or low back pain. The waves used i...
The body of law that governs the legal relations between or among sovereign states or nations.
An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.
A pupillary abnormality characterized by a poor pupillary light reaction, reduced accommodation, iris sector palsies, an enhanced pupillary response to near effort that results in a prolonged, "tonic" constriction, and slow pupillary redilation. This condition is associated with injury to the postganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp492-500)
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)