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This critical review focuses on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its management from a dental medicine perspective. OSA is characterized by ≥10-s cessation of breathing (apnea) or reduction in airflow (hypopnea) ≥5 times per hour with a drop in oxygen and/or rise in carbon dioxide. It can be associated with sleepiness and fatigue, impaired mood and cognition, cardiometabolic complications, and risk for transportation and work accidents. Although sleep apnea is diagnosed by a sleep physician, its management is interdisciplinary. The dentist's role includes 1) screening patients for OSA risk factors (e.g., retrognathia, high arched palate, enlarged tonsils or tongue, enlarged tori, high Mallampati score, poor sleep, supine sleep position, obesity, hypertension, morning headache or orofacial pain, bruxism); 2) referring to an appropriate health professional as indicated; and 3) providing oral appliance therapy followed by regular dental and sleep medical follow-up. In addition to the device features and provider expertise, anatomic, behavioral, demographic, and neurophysiologic characteristics can influence oral appliance effectiveness in managing OSA. Therefore, OSA treatment should be tailored to each patient individually. This review highlights some of the putative action mechanisms related to oral appliance effectiveness and proposes future research directions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of dental research
Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea, which is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway. Nasal obstruction is also considered as one of the independent ...
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disease associated with significant morbidity and high healthcare costs. Information and communication technology could offer cost-effective management opt...
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects many children, and adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common cause of paediatric OSA.
To elucidate current knowledge on the potential association and causality between sleep bruxism (SB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using full-night polysomnography.
Obstructive sleep apnea is often associated with microarousals and a stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. The knowledge of this autonomic activation may help understanding the in...
assess the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and endocrine, inflammatory, and metabolic bio-markers in consecutively enrolled adult male patients with a clinical suspicion of ob...
The objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of the Aspire Medical Advance System in obstructive sleep apnea by demonstrating a statistically significant mean reduction in the...
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The role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in the management of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is not precisely defined for children. The primary objective of this ...
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
Dentistry is the study, management and treatment of diseases and conditions affecting the mouth, jaw, teeth and their supporting tissues (Oxford Medical Dictionary) The work of a dentist ranges from regular patient check-up to orthodontics and surgery....
Sleep disorders disrupt sleep during the night, or cause sleepiness during the day, caused by physiological or psychological factors. The common ones include snoring and sleep apnea, insomnia, parasomnias, sleep paralysis, restless legs syndrome, circa...
Obesity is the condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body (mostly in subcutaneous tissues). clinical obesity is considered to be present when a person has a BMI of over 30 (Oxford Dictionary of Medicine). It is becoming increasing common i...