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Critical Issues in Dental and Medical Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

07:00 EST 8th November 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Critical Issues in Dental and Medical Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea."

This critical review focuses on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its management from a dental medicine perspective. OSA is characterized by ≥10-s cessation of breathing (apnea) or reduction in airflow (hypopnea) ≥5 times per hour with a drop in oxygen and/or rise in carbon dioxide. It can be associated with sleepiness and fatigue, impaired mood and cognition, cardiometabolic complications, and risk for transportation and work accidents. Although sleep apnea is diagnosed by a sleep physician, its management is interdisciplinary. The dentist's role includes 1) screening patients for OSA risk factors (e.g., retrognathia, high arched palate, enlarged tonsils or tongue, enlarged tori, high Mallampati score, poor sleep, supine sleep position, obesity, hypertension, morning headache or orofacial pain, bruxism); 2) referring to an appropriate health professional as indicated; and 3) providing oral appliance therapy followed by regular dental and sleep medical follow-up. In addition to the device features and provider expertise, anatomic, behavioral, demographic, and neurophysiologic characteristics can influence oral appliance effectiveness in managing OSA. Therefore, OSA treatment should be tailored to each patient individually. This review highlights some of the putative action mechanisms related to oral appliance effectiveness and proposes future research directions.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Journal of dental research
ISSN: 1544-0591
Pages: 22034519885644

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)

Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.

Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)

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HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.

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