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Snake venoms are primarily composed of proteins and peptides, and these toxins have developed high selectivity to their biological targets. This makes venoms interesting for exploration into protein evolution and structure-function relationships. A single venom protein superfamily can exhibit a variety of pharmacological effects; these variations in activity originate from differences in functional sites, domains, posttranslational modifications, and the formations of toxin complexes. In this review, we discuss examples of how the major venom protein superfamilies have diversified, as well as how newer technologies in the omics fields, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, can be used to characterize both known and unknown toxins. Because toxins are bioactive molecules with a rich diversity of activities, they can be useful as therapeutic and diagnostic agents, and successful examples of toxin applications in these areas are also reviewed. With the current rapid pace of technology, snake venom research and its applications will only continue to expand. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 8 is February 15, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of animal biosciences
Gene expression changes contribute to complex trait variations in both individuals and populations. However, the evolution of gene expression underlying complex traits over macroevolutionary timescale...
Snake venoms are complex mixtures of a large number of distinct proteins and peptides with biological activity. Peptide spectral libraries are compilations of previously identified MS/MS spectra obtai...
The cnidarian Nematostella vectensis has become an established lab model, providing unique opportunities for venom evolution research. The Nematostella venom system is multimodal: involving both nemat...
A comparative venom proteomic analysis of the Brazilian southern coral snake, M. frontalis, the Amazon coral snake M. spixii spixii, and the aquatic coral snake M. surinamensis is reported. Venoms fro...
Many venom proteins have presumably been convergently recruited by taxa from diverse venomous lineages. These toxic proteins have characteristics that allow them to remain stable in solution and have ...
The purpose of this study is to compare whether a same total dose given up front as a single dose is more effective and as safe as the same dose given as a fractioned dose. Evaluate the U...
This study will evaluate the recovery from copperhead snake bite in patients with mild or moderate venom effect. Potential subjects will receive CroFab antivenom or placebo. The trial is ...
This double-blinded randomized clinical trial investigates any differences in allergic responses elicited by Bee Venom (BV) and Essential Bee Venom (e-BV).
Neuroparalytic snake envenomation results in severe muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Treatment requires administration of anti-snake venom and supportive care in the form of invasi...
Understanding how foods and nutrients are digested, absorbed and metabolized when weight is stable and during weight loss induced by bariatric surgery procedure using the technologies of g...
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A genus of elapid snake indigenous to Southern Africa. It is closely related to the cobras (Naja) and is capable of spitting its venom.
A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.
Toxins isolated from the venom of Laticauda semifasciata, a sea snake (Hydrophid); immunogenic, basic polypeptides of 62 amino acids, folded by four disulfide bonds, block neuromuscular end-plates irreversibly, thus causing paralysis and severe muscle damage; they are similar to Elapid neurotoxins.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...