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Matrix vesicles (MVs) are a special class of extracellular vesicles that drive bone and dentin mineralization by providing the essential enzymes and ions for the nucleation and propagation of mineral crystals. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is an integral protein of MV membrane and participates in biomineralization by hydrolyzing extracellular pyrophosphate (PPi) - a strong mineralization inhibitor - and forming inorganic phosphate (Pi) necessary for the growth of mineral crystals inside MVs and their propagation once released in the extracellular matrix. MV membrane is enriched in cholesterol (CHOL), which influences the incorporation and activity of integral proteins in biologic membranes, however how CHOL controls the incorporation and activity of TNAP in MV membrane has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, Langmuir monolayers were used as a MV membrane biomimetic model to assess how CHOL affects TNAP incorporation and activity. Surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherms of binary dipalmitoilphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/CHOL monolayers showed that TNAP incorporation increases with CHOL concentration. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CHOL influences the conformation and orientation of the enzyme. Optical-fluorescence micrographs of the monolayers revealed the tendency of TNAP to incorporate into CHOL-rich microdomains. These data suggest that TNAP penetrates more efficiently and occupies a higher surface area into monolayers with a lower CHOL concentration due to the higher membrane fluidity. However, the quantity of enzyme transferred to solid supports as well as the enzymatic activity were higher using monolayers with a higher CHOL concentration due to increased rigidity that changes the enzyme orientation at the air-solid interface. These data provide new insights regarding the interfacial behavior of TNAP and CHOL in MVs and shed the light on the biochemical and biophysical processes occurring in MV membrane during biomineralization at the molecular level.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids
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RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
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