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The properties of small cerium oxide and gold-cerium oxide clusters were explored as analogues for gold deposition at defect sites on a cerium oxide surface. CeO ( = 0-2) and AuCeO ( = 0-2) clusters were prepared in the gas phase and investigated using photoionization efficiency spectroscopy complemented by spectral simulations based on DFT calculations; purely theoretical investigations were conducted on the CeO, CeO, AuCeO, and AuCeO clusters due to these species not being detected. The optimized AuCeO ( = 0-3) cluster geometries are consistent with Au adsorption to oxygen vacancy sites while the AuCeO cluster correlates with Au adsorption to a CeO vacancy site. The electronic properties of the adsorbed Au atom depend strongly on the nature of the ceria adsorption site: O vacancy-adsorbed Au is negatively charged with a Ce → Au charge transfer occurring at the adsorption interface, whereas Au adsorbed to a CeO vacancy is positively charged with an Au → Ce charge transfer. The adsorbed Au atom is proposed to enhance the catalytic properties of the AuCeO cluster by (i) stabilizing the negatively charged Au atom on reduced AuCeO clusters to enhance nucleophilicity; (ii) increasing the electron accepting capability of the AuCeO species; (iii) destabilizing the HOMO of the AuCeO cluster; and (iv) facilitating the abstraction of additional surface oxygen atoms by reactants.
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An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The field that studies interactions between individuals and the built and natural environment. It includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices.
Rare disease characterized by COLOBOMA; CHOANAL ATRESIA; and abnormal SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. Mutations in CHD7 protein resulting in disturbed neural crest development are associated with CHARGE Syndrome.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.