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The increase in the incidence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-associated infections necessitates the urgent development of novel therapeutic strategies and antibacterial drugs. Anti-virulence strategy is an especially compelling alternative strategy due to its low selective pressure for the development of drug resistance in bacteria. Plants and microorganisms are not only important food and medicinal resources, but also serve as sources for the discovery of natural products that target bacterial virulence factors. This review discusses the mechanisms of the major virulence factors of S. aureus, including the accessory gene regulator quorum-sensing system, bacterial bioﬁlm formation, α-hemolysin, sortase A, and staphyloxanthin. We also provide an overview of natural products isolated from plants and microorganisms with activity against the major virulence factors of S. aureus and their adjuvant effects on existing antibiotics to overcome antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. Finally, the limitations of and solutions to these anti-virulence compounds are discussed, which will help in the development of novel antibacterial drugs against antibiotic-resistant S. aureus.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
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Strains of the genus Enterococcus that are resistant to the antibiotic VANCOMYCIN. The enterococci become resistant by acquiring plasmids carrying genes for VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...