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Combinatorial chemistry drives the biological generation of protein structural diversity in antibodies and T-cell receptors. When applied to nucleic acids, vast engineered random libraries of DNA and RNA strands allow selection of affinity reagents ("aptamers") against molecular targets. Selection involves cycles rewarding target binding affinity with amplification. Despite the success of this approach, delivery of selected aptamers across cell membranes and to specific sub-cellular compartments is an unmet need in chemical biology. Here we address this challenge, demonstrating in vitro selection of DNA aptamers capable of homing to nuclei of cultured cells without transfection agents or viral transduction. Selection of such folded karyophilic DNA aptamers (~100 nucleotides) is achieved by a biosensor strategy that rewards exposure to nuclear DNA ligase. Identified DNA molecules are preferentially delivered to cell nuclei within minutes. Related strategies can be envisioned to select aptamers that home to other sub-cellular compartments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Selection and removal of individuals from a population or group. Culling is a common strategy with livestock and wildlife, used to control and eradicate diseases or pests, control population size, select for desired genetic characteristics, and maximize economic profit.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
A method of generating a large library of randomized nucleotides and selecting NUCLEOTIDE APTAMERS by iterative rounds of in vitro selection. A modified procedure substitutes AMINO ACIDS in place of NUCLEOTIDES to make PEPTIDE APTAMERS.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...