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We introduce a new type of particle-based membrane based on the combination of lignin colloids (LP) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), the latter of which are introduced in small volume fractions to act as networking and adhesive agent. The synergies that are inherent to lignin and cellulose in plants are re-engineered to render materials with low surface energy (contact angle measurements) and that can be rendered water resistant with the aid of wet-strength agents (WSA). Importantly, they are most suitable for anti-oxidative separation (ABTS●+ radical inhibition): membranes with uniform porous structures (air permeability and capillary flow porosimetry) allow effluent oxidation at 95 mL/cm2, demonstrating, for the first time, the use of unmodified lignin particles in flexible membranes for active microfiltration. Moreover, the membranes are found to be non-fouling (protein adhesion and activity rate). The inherent properties of lignin, including UV radiation blocking capacity (UV transmittance analysis) and reduced surface energy are further exploited in the development of tailorable and self-standing architectures that are almost entirely comprised of non-bonding LP (solids content as high as 92 w/w%). Despite such composition, the materials develop high toughness (oscillatory dynamic mechanical analysis), owing to the addition of minor amounts of CNF. Multifunctional materials based on thin films (casting), 3D structures (molding) and patterned geometries (extrusion deposition) are developed as a demonstration of the potential use of lignin particles as precursor of new material generation. Remarkably, our observations hold for spherical LPs since a much poorer performance was observed after using amorphous powder, indicating the role of size and shape in related applications.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS applied materials & interfaces
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The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
The interactions of particles responsible for their scattering and transformations (decays and reactions). Because of interactions, an isolated particle may decay into other particles. Two particles passing near each other may transform, perhaps into the same particles but with changed momenta (elastic scattering) or into other particles (inelastic scattering). Interactions fall into three groups: strong, electromagnetic, and weak. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 7th ed)