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The neural crest is an ectodermal cell population that gives rise to over 30 cell types during vertebrate embryogenesis. These stem cells are formed at the border of the developing central nervous system and undergo extensive migration before differentiating into components of multiple tissues and organs. Neural crest formation and differentiation is a multistep process, as these cells transition through sequential regulatory states before adopting their adult phenotype. Such changes are governed by a complex gene regulatory network (GRN) that integrates environmental and cell-intrinsic inputs to regulate cell identity. Studies of neural crest cells in a variety of vertebrate models have elucidated the function and regulation of dozens of the molecular players that are part of this network. The neural crest GRN has served as a platform to explore the molecular control of multipotency, cell differentiation, and the evolution of vertebrates. In this review, we employ this genetic program as a stepping-stone to explore the architecture and the regulatory principles of developmental GRNs. We also discuss how modern genomic approaches can further expand our understanding of genetic networks in this system and others. This article is categorized under: Physiology > Mammalian Physiology in Health and Disease Biological Mechanisms > Cell Fates Developmental Biology > Lineages Models of Systems Properties and Processes > Cellular Models.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Systems biology and medicine
The emergence of multipotent and migratory neural crest (NC) cells defines a key evolutionary transition from invertebrates to vertebrates. Studies in vertebrates have identified a complex gene regula...
Neural crest cells are a transient stem-like cell population that forms in the dorsal neural tube of vertebrate embryos and then migrates to various locations to differentiate into diverse derivatives...
Neural crest cells are a multipotent embryonic stem cell population that migrate large distances to contribute a variety of tissues. The cranial neural crest, which contribute to tissues of the face a...
Precise control of developmental processes is encoded in the genome in the form of gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Such multi-factorial systems are difficult to decode in vertebrates owing to their c...
The neural crest serves as a powerful and tractable model paradigm for understanding collective cell migration. The neural crest cell populations are well-known for their long-distance collective migr...
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The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Rare disease characterized by COLOBOMA; CHOANAL ATRESIA; and abnormal SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. Mutations in CHD7 protein resulting in disturbed neural crest development are associated with CHARGE Syndrome.
Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.
Track and monitor developments in stem cell research and commercial development. Follow the tabs above to read the latest global news, research, clinical trials on stem cells and follow companies active in the stem cell industry. BioPort...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...