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Targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunologic checkpoint blockade with monoclonal antibodies has achieved recent clinical success in antitumor therapy. However, therapeutic antibodies exhibit several issues such as limited tumor penetration, immunogenicity, and costly production. Here, Bristol-Myers Squibb nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared using a reprecipitation method. The NPs have advantages including passive targeting, hydrophilic and nontoxic features, and a 100% drug loading rate. BMS-202 is a small-molecule inhibitor of the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction that is developed by BMS. Transfer of BMS-202 NPs to 4T1 tumor-bearing mice results in markedly slower tumor growth to the same degree as treatment with anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (α-PD-L1). Consistently, the combination of Ce6 NPs with BMS-202 NPs or α-PD-L1 in parallel shows more efficacious antitumor and antimetastatic effects, accompanied by enhanced dendritic cell maturation and infiltration of antigen-specific T cells into the tumors. Thus, inhibition rates of primary and distant tumors reach >90%. In addition, BMS-202 NPs are able to attack spreading metastatic lung tumors and offer immune-memory protection to prevent tumor relapse. These results indicate that BMS-202 NPs possess effects similar to α-PD-L1 in the therapies of 4T1 tumors. Therefore, this work reveals the possibility of replacing the antibody used in immunotherapy for tumors with BMS-202 NPs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)
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Part of a MESSENGER RNA molecule that undergoes a conformation change upon binding a specific metabolite or other small molecule thereby regulating the messenger RNA's transcription, post-transcriptional processing, transport, translation, or stability in response to varying levels of the metabolite or other small molecule.
A serine/threonine-specific protein kinase which is encoded by the CHEK1 gene in humans. Checkpoint kinase 1 (also known as Chk1) coordinates DNA damage response and cell cycle checkpoint response. Under these conditions, activation of Chk1 results in the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and cell death, to prevent damaged cells from progressing through the cell cycle.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...
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