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Microglia are the main form of immune defense in the central nervous system. Microglia express phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which has been shown to play a significant role in synaptic plasticity in neurons and inflammation via microglia. This study shows that microglial PI3K is regulated epigenetically through histone modifications and posttranslationally through sumoylation and is involved in long-term potentiation (LTP) by modulating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been shown to be involved in neuronal synaptic plasticity. Sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, upregulates PI3K expression, the phosphorylation of its downstream effectors, AKT and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and the expression of BDNF in microglia, suggesting that BDNF secretion is regulated in microglia via epigenetic regulation of PI3K. Further, knockdown of SUMO1 in BV2 microglia results in a decrease in the expression of PI3K, the phosphorylation of AKT and CREB, as well as the expression of BDNF. These results suggest that microglial PI3K is epigenetically regulated by histone modifications and posttranslationally modified by sumoylation, leading to altered expression of BDNF. Whole-cell voltage-clamp showed the involvement of microglia in neuronal LTP, as selective ablation or disruption of microglia with clodronate in rat hippocampal slices abolished LTP. However, LTP was rescued when the same hippocampal slices were treated with active PI3K or BDNF, indicating that microglial PI3K/AKT signaling contributes to LTP and synaptic plasticity. Understanding the mechanisms by which microglial PI3K influences synapses provides insights into the ways it can modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity in learning and memory.
This article was published in the following journal.
Epigenetic alterations, along with genetic alterations, have long been regarded as the most important mechanism participating in carcinogenesis. DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-mediate...
To investigate the effect and mechanism of calcium on LS8 cell differentiation, especially on phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) /protein kinase B(AKT) pathway.
The insulin/insulin receptor substrate (IRS)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/GLUT4 pathway plays a crucial role in insulin resistance and is closely associated with T2DM. A...
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common cause of abrupted lung development after preterm birth. BPD may lead to increased rehospitalization, more severe and frequent respiratory infections, and l...
Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP) generation at the plasma membrane is a key event during activation of receptor tyrosine kinases such as the insulin receptor required for normal growth a...
This is a phase II, exploratory, open-label, single arm study of BYL719 monotherapy, a selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) alpha inhibitor, in adult patients with advanced metas...
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3Kinase)/Protein Kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway plays a role on the development and the venous/lymphatic vascular organisa...
Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a rare congenital but non-hereditary disease caused by a post-zygotic activation mutation of the GNAS gene. Patients with fibrous dysplasia may present pain an...
There has not been any systemic therapy approved in the United States or in Europe for treating advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer (EC). This study will evaluate the safety and preli...
Primary objective : To identify epigenetic dysregulations of in vivo TKI-resisting CML cells Hypothesis : An epigenetic dysregulation is involved in the in vivo survival of a CML cell subc...
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. This is the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. This pathway is thought to play a critical role in DNA repair, V(D)J recombination and cell cycle checkpoints. EC 188.8.131.52.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase subclass that includes enzymes whose specificity is limited to 1-phosphatidylinositol. Members of this class play a role in vesicular transport and in the regulation of TOR KINASES.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol into 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...