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Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become an important class of therapeutics, particularly in the realm of anti-cancer immunotherapy. While the two antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) of a mAb allow for high-avidity binding to molecular targets, the crystallizable fragment (Fc) engages immune effector elements. mAbs of the IgG class are used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and can elicit anti-tumor immune functions by several mechanisms including direct antigen engagement via their Fab arms, but also by Fab binding to tumors combined with Fc engagement of complement component C1q and Fc γ receptors. Additionally, IgG binding to the neonatal Fc receptor allows for endosomal recycling and prolonged serum half-life. To augment the effector functions or half-life of an IgG1 mAb, we constructed a novel "2Fc" mAb containing two Fc domains in addition to the normal two Fab domains. Structural and functional characterization of this 2Fc mAb demonstrated that it exists in a tetrahedral-like geometry and retains binding capacity via the Fab domains. Furthermore, duplication of the Fc region significantly enhanced avidity for Fc receptors FcγRI, FcγRIIIa, and FcRn which manifested as a decrease in complex dissociation rate that was more pronounced at higher densities of receptor. At intermediate receptor density, the dissociation rate for Fc receptors was decreased 6- to 130-fold, resulting in apparent affinity increases of 7- to 42-fold. Stoichiometric analysis confirmed that each 2Fc mAb may simultaneously bind two molecules of FcγRI or four molecules of FcRn, which is double the stoichiometry of a wild-type mAb. In summary, duplication of the IgG Fc region allows for increased avidity to Fc receptors that could translate into clinically relevant enhancement of effector functions or pharmacokinetics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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We describe a genetically encoded micelle for targeted delivery consisting of a diblock polypeptide with segments derived from repetitive protein motifs inspired by Drosophila melanogastor Rec-1 resil...
The functionalization of proteins with different cargo molecules is highly desirable for a broad range of applications. However, the reproducible production of defined conjugates with multiple functio...
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Antibodies often undergo substantial engineering en route to the generation of a therapeutic candidate with good developability properties. Characterization of antibody libraries has shown that retain...
Antibody-based proteins have become an important class of biologic therapeutics, due in large part to the stability, specificity, and adaptability of the antibody framework. Indeed, antibodies not onl...
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Clinical study to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of low dose contrast enhanced dual energy mammography imaging (CEDEM+PRIME) in comparison with CE-MRI The primary objective of this clinical ...
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A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
An approach, process, or methodology which emphasizes credible evidence and the best available scientific knowledge, judiciously integrated to achieve the best possible outcomes in structural design. For example, the design of a new OUTPATIENT CLINIC might incorporate a review of published research on outpatient clinic design, decisions on similar past projects, along with interviews with staff and consumers.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
Monoclonal antibodies MAbs
Monoclonal antibodies recognise and attach to specific proteins produced by cells. Types of monoclonal antibodies used to treat cancer cells: Block cell dividing dividing signals Transport cancer drugs or radiation to cancer cells Tr...
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...