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Electrolytic water technology is promising for sustainable energy utilization, but the lack of efficient electrocatalysts retards its application. The intrinsic activity of electrocatalysts is determined by its electronic structure, while the apparent activity can be further optimized by reasonable design on micro/nano-structures of electrocatalysts. The core goal of electrocatalytic research is to reveal the relationship between the structure and performance of electrocatalysts, which is also the basis of reasonable design and construction of efficient electrocatalysts. Traditional synthetic method, namely bottom-up and top-down routes, usually induce the change of different structural parameters at the same time. Solid-state conversion strategy, which is converting solid precursors into target materials through chemical reactions, has been widely adopted to produce materials with precisely controllable structures. In this review, we focus on recent advances on solid-state conversion synthesis of water-splitting electrocatalysts. First, the basis of solid-state conversion chemistry was introduced. Then, the specific ways of precise control of electronic structure by solid-state conversion and the relationship between electronic structure and performance were summarized. Based on the understanding of the electronic structure-performance relationship, synergistic regulation of electronic structure and micro/nano-structures by solid-state conversion to achieve the co-promotion of intrinsic activity and apparent activity were described. Finally, the remaining challenges in this field were discussed, and future research directions were proposed as well.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)
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An aromatase inhibitor that produces a state of "medical" adrenalectomy by blocking the production of adrenal steroids. It also blocks the conversion of androgens to estrogens. Aminoglutethimide has been used in the treatment of advanced breast and prostate cancer. It was formerly used for its weak anticonvulsant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p454)
Garbage, refuse, or sludge, or other discarded materials from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, and air pollution control facility that include solid, semi-solid, or contained material. It does not include materials dissolved in domestic sewage, irrigation return flows, or industrial discharges.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)