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Therapeutic success of targeted therapy with BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) for melanoma is limited by resistance development. Observations from preclinical mouse models and recent insights into the immunological effects caused by BRAFi give promise for future development of combination therapy for human melanoma. In this study, we used the transplantable D4M melanoma mouse model with the BRAF mutation and concomitant PTEN loss in order to characterize alterations in tumor-infiltrating effector immune cells when tumors become resistant to BRAFi. We found that BRAFi-sensitive tumors displayed a pronounced inflammatory milieu characterized by high levels of cytokines and chemokines accompanied by an infiltration of T and NK cells. The tumor-infiltrating effector cells were activated and produced high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and granzyme B. When tumors became resistant and progressively grew, they reverted to a low immunogenic state similar to untreated tumors as reflected by low mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and fewer tumor-infiltrating T and NK cells. Moreover, these T and NK cells were functionally impaired in comparison to their counterparts in BRAFi-sensitive tumors. Their effector cell function could be restored by additional peritumoral treatment with the TLR7 agonist imiquimod, a clinically approved agent for non-melanoma skin cancer. Indeed, resistance to BRAFi therapy was delayed and accompanied by high numbers of activated T and NK cells in tumors. Thus, combining BRAFi with an immune stimulating agent such as a TLR ligand could be a promising alternative approach for the treatment of melanoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of cancer
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A selective beta-1-adrenergic partial agonist. Because it is a partial agonist (DRUG PARTIAL AGONISM) it acts like an agonist when sympathetic activity is low and as an antagonist when sympathetic activity is high. It reduces MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA and improves ventricular function in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. In patients with severe heart failure it has been shown to produce benefits in systolic and diastolic function.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
A technique for causing a targeted loss of molecular function from REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES that are formed by the illumination of dyes placed in the immediate vicinity of the target molecule.
A bioflavonoid that strengthens vascular walls.
A histamine H2 agonist used clinically to test gastric secretory function.
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
Melanoma is a highly malignant tumor of melanin-forming cells (melanocytes) There are most commonly found in the skin (resulting from sunlight exposure), but also in the eyes and mucous membranes. Metastasis to other regions of the body is also common....