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Transposases are ubiquitous mobile genetic elements responsible for genome development, driving rearrangements, such as insertions, deletions and translocations. Across species evolution, some transposases are tamed by their host and are made part of complex cellular systems. The proliferation of retroviruses is also dependent on transposase related enzymes termed integrases. Recombination‑activating gene protein (RAG)1 and metnase are just two examples of transposase domestication and together with retroviral integrases (INs), they belong to the DDE polynucleotidyl transferases superfamily. They share mechanistic and structural features linked to the RNase H‑like fold, harboring a DDE(D) metal dependent catalytic motif. Recent antiretroviral compounds target the catalytic domain of integrase, but they also have the potential of inhibiting other related enzymes. In this review, we report the activity of different classes of integrase inhibitors on various DDE transposases. Computational simulations are useful to predict the extent of off‑target activity and have been employed to study the interactions between RAG1 recombinase and compounds from three different pharmacologic classes. We demonstrate that strand‑transfer inhibitors display a higher affinity towards the RAG1 RNase H domain, as suggested by experimental data compared to allosteric inhibitors. While interference with RAG1 and 2 recombination is associated with a negative impact on immune function, the inhibition of metnase or HTLV‑1 integrase opens the way for the development of novel therapies for refractory cancers.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular medicine reports
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Integrase is an enzyme produced by HIV so that the virus can multiply in the human body. GSK1349572 is a new drug in the integrase inhibitor class that prevents the enzyme from working pro...
Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of integrase.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
A member of the c-ets family of transcription factors that is preferentially expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineages and vascular endothelial cells. It was originally identified as a protein that provides a retroviral integration site for integration of FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS.
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