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Microglia were once thought to serve a pathogenic role in demyelinating diseases, particularly in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it has recently been shown that in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, microglia could serve a protective role by promoting remyelination via the efficient removal of apoptotic cells, the phagocytosis of debris and the support of myelinating oligodendrocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine if the effect of microglia could promote the recovery of EAE and attenuate symptoms in EAE. The severity of EAE was assessed by clinical scores, pathologic changes revealed by luxol fast blue staining and immunohistochemical techniques. The results suggested that microglia reduced clinical scores in mice, suppressed ongoing severe EAE and promoted remyelination and recovery in EAE mice. In addition, following induction with tuftsin, the M1/M2 cytokine balance was shifted, downregulating the proinflammatory M1 response and upregulating the anti‑inflammatory M2 response. Generally, microglia can stimulate remyelination, which serves a protective role in different phases of EAE and may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MS.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular medicine reports
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which carries a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Herein we examine the effects of acute treatm...
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-induced demyelination were combined to study remyelination in a pro-inflammatory context. Two groups of female C57BL/6...
Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) are of particular importance in regulating the cell volume (CV) and give rise to the swelling-activated Cl- current (I), a main component driving global regulat...
Microglia are resident macrophages of the CNS that are involved in its development, homeostasis and response to infection and damage. Microglial activation is a common feature of neurological disorder...
The anti-oxidant lipoic acid (LA) is beneficial in murine models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and has recently been shown to slow brain atrophy in secondary progressive MS. The mechanism of these effect...
Specific Aims The specific aims of the study are: - Primary Objective: To assess the effect of alemtuzumab on microglial activation in MS patients. The hypothesis is that a...
Type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) is a chronic sleep disorder caused by the selective and irreversible loss of neurons from the hypothalamus, which synthesizes a neurotransmitter: hypocretin (Hcrt) ...
The overall goal of this protocol is to evaluate microglial activation in the brain using [18F]PBR06 in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
In light of experimental models showing that neuronal electrical activity is crucial for the remyelination process, we hypothesize that maintenance of electrical axonal activity in the ear...
The overarching aim is to assess the role of microglial activation and norepinephrine transporter binding in pathogenesis of MS-related fatigue, using novel Positron Emission Tomography (P...
Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)
N(2)-((1-(N(2)-L-Threonyl)-L-lysyl)-L-prolyl)-L-arginine. A tetrapeptide produced in the spleen by enzymatic cleavage of a leukophilic gamma-globulin. It stimulates the phagocytic activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and neutrophils in particular. The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule.
An experimental animal model for the demyelinating disease of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)
The reforming of the MYELIN SHEATH around AXONS following loss due to injury or DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
Autoimmune disorders are conditions that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune disorders. Normally the immune system's white blood cells help protect ...
Multiple Sclerosis MS
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurological condition affecting 100,000 young adults in the UK. The condition results from autoimmune damage to myelin, causing interference in nerve signaling. Symptoms experienced depend on the pa...
Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is a compound that is classified as a cytokine which plays a central role in the cellular mechanisms of apoptosis or cell death. However, there are a number of different kinds of TNF, just under twenty, but the family of molecules have very similar a...