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1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a known human carcinogen found in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and urban air. Workers occupationally exposed to BD in the workplace have an increased incidence of leukemia and lymphoma. BD undergoes cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic activation to 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) and 1,2-dihydroxy-3,4-epoxybutane (EBD), which form covalent adducts with DNA. We have previously reported a quantitative nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 method for urinary N7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) adducts as a mechanism-based biomarker of BD exposure. In the present study, the method was updated to include high throughput 96-well solid phase extraction (SPE) and employed to establish urinary EB-GII biomarker stability and association with smoking. Urinary EB-GII levels were measured bimonthly for 1 year in 19 smokers to determine whether single adduct measurement provides reliable levels of EB-GII in an individual smoker. In addition, association of EB-GII with smoking was studied in 17 individuals participating in a smoking cessation program. EB-GII levels decreased 34% upon smoking cessation, indicating that it is associated with smoking status, but may also originate from sources other than exposure to cigarette smoke.
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4-(Methylnitrosamino)-l-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), two tobacco specific nitrosamine carcinogens, can form adducts with DNA and proteins via pyridyloxobutylation upon ...
DNA adducts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) play a critical role in the etiology of gastrointestinal tract cancers in humans and other species orally exposed to PAHs. Yet, the ...
Arsenic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental pollutants to which people around the world are exposed through water, food and air. In mouse and in vitro studies of human cells, ...
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are phytochemicals present in more than 6000 plant species worldwide; about half of the PAs are hepatotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic. Because of their wide exposure a...
The fact that pharmaceuticals are present in the environment has been proven in numerous publications. Nevertheless, their transformation products (mainly metabolites) are detected significantly less ...
DNA adducts in the oral mucosa cells of 100 smokers from 3 ethnic groups - Native Hawaiians, Whites, and Japanese Americans with differing risks for lung cancer upon cigarette smoking will...
The purpose of this study is to better understand the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen and further clinical interpretations of laboratory results that confirm the presence of acetaminophe...
Butadiene is a suspect human carcinogen to which most people are exposed daily. Exposures are difficult to measure by air sampling. This study examines the relationship between air level...
The main objective is to evaluate the stability of EEG features on an individual level.
The primary objective is to identify which patients undergoing a traditional pterional approach with 2 different surgical techniques for TMS (Temporal Muscle Suspension) will develop TH (T...
An alkylating agent that forms DNA ADDUCTS at the C-8 position in GUANINE, resulting in single strand breaks. It has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
(13E,15S)-15-Hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-10,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGA(1)); (5Z,13E,15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13-trien-1-oic acid (PGA(2)); (5Z,13E,15S,17Z)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13,17-tetraen-1-oic acid (PGA(3)). A group of naturally occurring secondary prostaglandins derived from PGE; PGA(1) and PGA(2) as well as their 19-hydroxy derivatives are found in many organs and tissues.
An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine. It converts 2-acetolactate into 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-isovalerate. Also acts on 2-hydroxy-2-acetobutyrate to form 2-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-methylvalerate. EC 188.8.131.52.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Erectile Dysfunction Urology Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract and diseases that affect it. Examples include urethritis, urethrostenosis and incontinence. Urology is a su...