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The involvement of neutrophils in the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is not as well recognized as the involvement of macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, this study gives more insight on the impact of the virulent Mtb H37Rv strain on proapoptotic and proinflammatory functions of human neutrophils in vitro. We found that neutrophils are not able to kill Mtb during infection process, probably due to the lack of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production in response to bacteria. However, infected neutrophils effectively released cytokines: chemoattractant interleukin (IL) 8 and proinflammatory IL-1β. Moreover, Mtb enhanced the early apoptosis of neutrophils already at 2 hours postinfection. Additionally, this proapoptotic and proinflammatory response of neutrophils to Mtb infection occurred in an IRAK1- and IRAK4-independent manner. We also found that Mtb did not affect the surface expression of Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 and slightly enhanced the surface expression of TLR4, but did not influence mRNA levels of both TLRs during infection process. In conclusion, we show that the inhibition of signaling proteins activated by MyD88-dependent pathway did not participate in the biological activity of neutrophils against Mtb.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: FEMS microbiology letters
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In this article, we report the discovery of a series of 5-azaquinazolines as selective IRAK4 inhibitors. From modestly potent quinazoline 4, we introduced a 5-aza substitution to mask the 4-NH hydroge...
Background Surgery and inflammation Surgical trauma elicits an immune response aiming to initiate healing and remove debris and damaged tissue locally at the wound site (1). This local rea...
Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Early during sepsis course, immature neutrophils could be found in the bloodstream and may...
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Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. It plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
A sub-family of smad proteins that inhibit cell signaling by RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. They form autoinhibitory feedback loops in the TGF-BETA signaling pathway and mediate signaling cross-talk with other signaling pathways
A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.
A subclass of c-ets proto-oncogene proteins that were first described by their property of binding to DNA when associated with other regulatory proteins such as SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. They contain an amino-terminal ets domain that binds to DNA along with centrally located SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR interacting domain, and carboxy-terminal map kinase activation domains. They play an important role in transcriptional regulation by INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Over nine million new cases of TB, and nearly two million deaths from TB, are estimated to occur around the world every year, and new inf...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...