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Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are natural vectors of Leishmania. For the initiation of sand fly experimental infections either Leishmania amastigotes or promastigotes can be used. In order to obtain comparable results, it is necessary to adjust and standardize procedures. During this study, we conducted promastigote- and amastigote-initiated infections of Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908 parasites in Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus Newstead, 1911 in two laboratories with different levels of biosafety protection. Protocol originally designed for a biosafety level 2 facility was modified for biosafety level 3 facility and infection parameters were compared. Particularly, specially designed plastic containers were used for blood feeding; feeders were placed outside the sand fly cage, on the top of the mesh; feeding was performed inside the climatic chamber; separation of engorged females was done in Petri dishes kept on ice; engorged females were kept in the cardboard containers until dissection. All experiments, conducted in both laboratories, resulted in fully developed late stage infections with high number of parasites and colonization of the stomodeal valve. We demonstrated that protocol originally designed for biosafety level 2 facilities can be successfully modified for other biosafety facilities, depending on the special requirements of the individual institution/laboratory.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of medical entomology
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A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
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