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Medical practitioners of all specialisms (e.g. RN, MD) are identified by their professional titles. Their function is determined by their regulators, and subject to voluntary employment contracts. Whilst they are expected to act in their patients' best interests, there are situations in which a physician - having human rights - can object to certain acts. This right of objetction arises from the recognition of the practitioner's own conscience rather than the end or purpose of the procedure being performed. Gamble and Pruski explore an act-centred morality, and therefore define acts as medical (and subject to compulsion) and non-medical (therefore voluntary). This analysis has merit when applied to health-systems as a whole, but fails to take into account the humanity of physicians and the specific interactions with patients in different contexts. As such, it serves as a way of compelling physicians to act against their conscience rather than protecting them.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The New bioethics : a multidisciplinary journal of biotechnology and the body
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The freedom of patients to review their own medical, genetic, or other health-related records.
Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.
The component of the personality associated with ethics, standards, and self-criticism - the "conscience". It is derived mainly from identification with parents and parent substitutes.
Freedom from activity.
Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.