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Despite the progress in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI), current curative approaches fail to provide adequate treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of thymosin-β-4(Tβ4) on an ischemic AKI model in rats. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups ( 8/group): The control group (sham-operated), the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group; renal ischemia (90 min) by infrarenal abdominal aortic occlusion followed by reperfusion (3 h), the Tβ4 + I/R group; treated with Tβ4 before I/R, and the I/Tβ4/R group; treated with Tβ4 just before reperfusion. Besides renal function determination (creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)); histological evaluation was also conducted. Renal tissue caspase-9, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) activities, and hyaluronan levels were measured. Additionally, renal tissue oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxide, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, ferric reducing antioxidant power, nitric oxide), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κβ) were evaluated. I/R increased the level of caspase-9, MMP-9 activity, and hyaluronan ( 0.001) and these were significantly decreased in both Tβ4 groups. Moreover, I/R led to increases in oxidative stress and inflammation parameters ( 0.001) while the levels of antioxidants were decreased. Nevertheless, Tβ4 in both groups were able to restore oxidative stress and inflammation parameters. Furthermore, Tβ4 attenuated histologic injury caused by I/R ( 0.01) and diminished serum urea-creatinine levels ( 0.001). These results suggest that Tβ4 has significant improving effects in ischemic acute kidney injury. This beneficial effect might be a result of the inhibition of extracellular matrix remodeling and apoptosis cascade via modulation in renal redox status and inflammation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
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Abrupt reduction in kidney function defined as an absolute increase in serum CREATININE of more than or equal to 0.3. mg/dl, a percentage increase in serum creatinine of more than or equal to 50%, or a reduction in urine output. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...