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In this review, the applications of graphene and its derivatives in the chemical analysis have been described. The properties of graphene materials which are essential for their use in chemical and biochemical analysis are characterized. The materials are used in sensors and biosensors, in electrochemistry, in chromatography and in the sample preparation techniques. Chemical and electrochemical sensors containing graphene materials are useful devices for detecting some chemical and biochemical compounds. Chromatographic columns for HPLC with graphene containing stationary phases may be used for separation of polar and nonpolar components of some specific mixtures. Graphene materials could be successfully employed during sample preparation for analysis with SPE, magnetic SPE, and SPME techniques. HighlightsThe review of the applications of graphene (G) and its derivatives, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), in chemical and biochemical analysis is proposed.The electron donor-acceptor and proton donor-acceptor interactions for the graphene based materials - analytes systems and their impact on the analysis results are discussed, particularly: i) in electrochemistry,ii) in chromatography,iii) in modern sample preparation techniquesiv) in sensors of different types.The essence of the thermal stability and the nomenclature of the graphene based materials in their different applications in chemical systems of different classes was discussed (and suggested).The benefits of using SPME fibers with immobilized graphene materials have been presented in detail.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Critical reviews in analytical chemistry
Because of an atom-thick two-dimensional structure with sp hybridization, large specific area, high thermal conductivity, superior electron mobility, and chemical stability, graphene (GN) has develope...
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The control of environmental pollutants is a global concern. Recently, heteroatom-doped graphene has drawn increasing attention due to their widespread applications in removing and detecting environme...
Graphene and its heterostructures exhibit interesting electronic properties and are explored for quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) and magnetism-based device applications. In present work, we propose a ...
2D layered materials (2D LMs) are taking over the scientific world by storm. Graphene epitomizes 2D LMs with many interesting properties and corresponding applications. Following the footsteps of grap...
Nanoparticles (NPs) are minute pieces of material to which we are exposed every day in the air we breathe. Some are naturally occurring and have no impact on health, whereas others are pro...
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A method of chemical analysis based on the detection of characteristic radionuclides following a nuclear bombardment. It is also known as radioactivity analysis. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A system of safety management (abbreviated HACCP) applied mainly to the food industry. It involves the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards, from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of finished products.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.