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Unusual structures and dynamic properties found in polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are often attributed to immobilized (adsorbed) polymers at nanoparticle-polymer interfaces, which are responsible for reducing the intrinsic incompatibility between nanoparticles and polymers in PNCs. Although tremendous effort has been made to characterize the presence of immobilized polymers, a systematic understanding of the structure and dynamics under different processing conditions is still lacking. Here, we report that the initial dispersing solvent, which is not present after producing PNCs, drives these nonequilibrium effects on polymer chain dynamics at interfaces. Employing extensive small-angle scattering, proton NMR spectroscopy, and rheometry experiments, we found that the thickness of the immobilized layer can be dependent on the initial solvent, changing the structure and the properties of the PNC significantly. In addition, we show that the outcome of the initial solvent effect becomes more effective at particle volume fractions where the immobile layers begin to interact.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physical review letters
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The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
First segment of axon that connects distal axon segments to the neuronal CELL BODY at the axon hillock region. The axon initial segment is not protected by the MYELIN SHEATH and has properties critical for axonal growth. The axon initial segment and the axon hillock form an axonal trigger zone.
A set of opposing, nonequilibrium reactions catalyzed by different enzymes which act simultaneously, with at least one of the reactions driven by ATP hydrolysis. The results of the cycle are that ATP energy is depleted, heat is produced and no net substrate-to-product conversion is achieved. Examples of substrate cycling are cycling of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways and cycling of the triglycerides and fatty acid pathways. Rates of substrate cycling may be increased many-fold in association with hypermetabolic states resulting from severe burns, cold exposure, hyperthyroidism, or acute exercise.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.