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H-/K-Ras and N-Ras isoforms were proposed to lack functional specificities due to similarity in 1-165 amino acids. As recent studies implied Ras isoform-specific developmental effects, we examined their functional specificity using Leishmania major infection, anti-hapten antibody response and carrier-specific T cell response. While N-Ras overexpression increased L. major infection in resistant C57BL/6 mice, H-Ras or K-Ras overexpression reduced the infection in susceptible BALB/c mice. These Ras isoforms differentially regulated anti-TNP antibody response in TNP-Ova-primed, but not in TNP-Ficoll- or TNP-LPS-primed, BALB/c mice. Ras isoform-specific silencing selectively modulated Ova-specific T cell response. The data indicate Ras isoform-specific regulation of antigen-specific immune response.
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Cancer-specific splice variants gain significant interest as they generate neo-antigens, that could be targeted by immune cells. CD20, a membrane antigen broadly expressed in mature B cell...
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Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION by a specific ANTIGEN thus triggering clonal expansion of LYMPHOCYTES already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen.
The capacity of VACCINES to stimulate the ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE to produce antibodies and antigen-specific T-CELL responses.
Human immune-response, D-related antigen encoded by the D locus on chromosome 6 and found on lymphoid cells.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...