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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is both the most common and most lethal genetic disease in the Caucasian population. CF is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and is characterized by the accumulation of thick, adherent mucus plaques in multiple organs, of which the lungs, gastrointestinal tract and pancreatic ducts are the most commonly affected. A similar pathogenesis cascade is observed in all of these organs: loss of CFTR function leads to altered ion transport, consisting of decreased chloride and bicarbonate secretion via the CFTR channel and increased sodium absorption via epithelial sodium channel upregulation. Mucosa exposed to changes in ionic concentrations sustain severe pathophysiological consequences. Altered mucus biophysical properties and weakened innate defense mechanisms ensue, furthering the progression of the disease. Mucins, the high-molecular-weight glycoproteins responsible for the viscoelastic properties of the mucus, play a key role in the disease but the actual mechanism of mucus accumulation is still undetermined. Multiple hypotheses regarding the impact of CFTR malfunction on mucus have been proposed and are reviewed here. (a) Dehydration increases mucin monomer entanglement, (b) defective Ca chelation compromises mucin expansion, (c) ionic changes alter mucin interactions, and (d) reactive oxygen species increase mucin crosslinking. Although one biochemical change may dominate, it is likely that all of these mechanisms play some role in the progression of CF disease. This article discusses recent findings on the initial cause(s) of aberrant mucus properties in CF and examines therapeutic approaches aimed at correcting mucus properties.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pediatric pulmonology
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An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
A strain of mice widely studied as a model for cystic fibrosis. These mice are generated from embryonic stem cells in which the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is inactivated by gene targeting. As a result, all mice have one copy of this altered gene in all their tissues. Mice homozygous for the disrupted gene exhibit many features common to young cystic fibrosis patients, including failure to thrive, meconium ileus, and alteration of mucous and serous glands.
A rehabilitation therapy for removal of copious mucus secretion from the lung of patients with diseases such as CHRONIC BRONCHITIS; BRONCHIECTASIS; PULMONARY ABSCESS; or CYSTIC FIBROSIS. The patient's head is placed in a downward incline (so the TRACHEA is inferior to the affected area) for 15- to 20-minute sessions.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...
Affecting over 8,500 people in the UK, Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is one of the UK's most common life-threatening inherited diseases. Around half of the CF population can expect to live over 38 years, although improvements in treatments mean a baby born ...