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Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension, and short-term studies have demonstrated a modest reduction in blood pressure with continuous positive airway pressure therapy. We evaluated the effects of continuous positive airway pressure versus sham continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure in 1,101 participants with obstructive sleep apnea from the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study, a randomized, sham-controlled double-blinded study designed to assess the impact of continuous positive airway pressure on neurocognition. Participants with apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 10 were randomly assigned to continuous positive airway pressure or sham continuous positive airway pressure. Blood pressures measured in the morning and evening at baseline, 2 months and 6 months were analysed post hoc using a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance. The largest magnitude reduction was approximately 2.4 mmHg in morning systolic pressure that occurred at 2 months in the continuous positive airway pressure arm as compared with an approximate 0.5 mmHg reduction in the sham group (continuous positive airway pressure effect -1.9 mmHg, p = .008). At 6 months, the difference between groups was diminished and no longer statistically significant (continuous positive airway pressure effect -0.9 mmHg, p = .12). Sensitivity analysis with use of multiple imputation approaches to account for missing data did not change the results. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea reduces morning but not evening blood pressure in a population with well-controlled blood pressure. The effect was greater after 2 than after 6 months of treatment.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of sleep research
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A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)
The pressure within the CARDIAC ATRIUM. It can be measured directly by using a pressure catheter (see HEART CATHETERIZATION). It can be also estimated using various imaging techniques or other pressure readings such as PULMONARY CAPILLARY WEDGE PRESSURE (an estimate of left atrial pressure) and CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE (an estimate of right atrial pressure).
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
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