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is a recently recognized human enteropathogen that is closely related to . In many Gram-negative bacteria, including , O-antigen variation has long been used for the serotyping of strains. In , while eight O-serotypes unique to this species have been identified, some strains have been shown to exhibit genetic or serological similarity to known / O-serotypes. However, the diversity of O-serotypes and O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters (O-AGCs) of remains to be systematically investigated. Here, we analysed the O-AGCs of 65 strains and identified 40 O-genotypes (EAOgs) (named EAOg1-EAOg40). Analyses of the 40 EAOgs revealed that as many as 20 EAOgs exhibited significant genetic and serological similarity to the O-AGCs of known / O-serotypes, and provided evidence for the inter-species horizontal gene transfer of O-AGCs between and . Based on the sequence variation in the gene among the 40 EAOgs, we developed a multiplex PCR-based O-genotyping system for (EAO-genotyping PCR) and verified its usefulness by genotyping 278 strains from various sources. Although 225 (80.9 %) of the 278 strains could be genotyped, 51 were not assigned to any of the 40 EAOgs, indicating that further analyses are required to better understand the diversity of O-AGCs in and improve the EAO-genotyping PCR method. A phylogenetic view of strains sequenced so far is also presented with the distribution of the 40 EAOgs, which provided multiple examples for the intra-species horizontal transfer of O-AGCs in .
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Microbial genomics
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Escherichia albertii EA046 (O9) harbors two polysaccharide gene clusters for synthesis of the O-antigen by the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway and a mannan shared by Escherichia coli O8 by the Wzm/Wzt-dependent pathway.
O antigen is a polysaccharide chain of a lipopolysaccharide on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. O-antigen-based serotyping and molecular typing are widely used for epidemiological and sur...
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To assess, in donor-recipient clusters, current models of HIV-1 genetic evolution and pathogenesis, based on the sequence diversity displayed by this lentivirus.
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The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...